မြန်မာအက္ခရာ

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​

မြန်မာအက္ခရာ is a script in the Brahmic family used in Burma for writing Burmese, Mon, Shan, S'gaw and Pwo Karen dialects, and Rumai Palaung. The characters are rounded in appearance, because the traditional palm leaves used for writing on with a stylus would have been ripped by straight lines. Like English, it is written from left to right. There are no spaces between words, although informal writing often contains spaces after each clause.

The script originated in southern Indian script. Burmese adapted from the Mon script , has undergone considerable modifications to suit the phonology of Burmese, and to fit its word order of Subject Object Verb. The script is altered from language to language (e.g. Shan, Mon, etc.)

ဝဂ်နာမည် ဝဂ်ဗျည်း
သိထိလ ဓနိတ သိထိလ နိဂ္ဂဟိတ
ကဏ္ဍဇ က /k/ /kʰ/ /g/ /g/ /ŋ/
ကကြီး ([ka̰ dʒí]) ခခွေး ([kʰa̰ gwé]) ဂငယ် ([ɡa̰ ŋɛ̀]) ဃကြီး ([ɡa̰ dʒí]) -
တာလုဇ /s/ /sʰ/ /z/ /z/ /ɲ/
စလုံး ([sa̰ lóʊɴ]) ဆလိမ် ([sʰa̰ lèɪɴ]) ဇခွဲ ([za̰ ɡwɛ́]) ဈမျဉ်းဆွဲ ([za̰ mjíɴ zwɛ́]) -
မုဒ္ဒဇ /t/ /tʰ/ /d/ /d/ /n/
ဋသန်လျင်းချိတ် ([ta̰ θəlíɴ dʒeɪʔ]) ဌဝမ်ဘဲ ([tʰa̰ wàɴ bɛ́]) ဍရင်ကောက် ([da̰ jìɴ ɡaʊʔ]) ဎရေမှုတ် ([da̰ jè m̥oʊʔ]) ဏကြီး ([na̰ dʑí])
ဒန္တဇ /t/ /tʰ/ /d/ /d/ /n/
တဝမ်းပူ ([ta̰ wàɴ bu]) ထဆင်ထူး ([tʰa̰ sʰìɴ dú]) ဒထွေး ([da̰ dwé]) ဓအောက်ခြိုက ([da̰ oʊʔ tʃʰaɪʔ]) နငယ် ([na̰ ŋɛ̀])
ဩဌဇ /p/ /pʰ/ /b/ /b/ /m/
ပစောက် ([pa̰ zaʊʔ]) ဖဦးထုပ် ([pʰa̰ óʊ tʰoʊʔ]) ဗထက်ခြိုက်‌ ([ba̰ là tʃʰaɪʔ]) ဘကုန်း ([ba̰ ɡóʊɴ]) -
အခြားဗျည်းများ
အဝဂ် /j/ /j/ /l/ /w/ /θ/
ယပက်လက် ([ja̰ pəlɛʔ]) ရကောက်‌ ([ja̰ ɡaʊʔ]) - - -
/h/ /l/ /ʔ/
- ဠကြီး ([la̰ dʒí]) -

Diacritics[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

There are several diactric marks that alter the vowel sound of a letter. Two diacritics are used exclusively for Pali and are rarely seen elsewhere.

The thirty-three consonants of the Burmese abugida, without diacritics.
Diacritic အမည် Remarks
ရေးချ ဝိုက်ချ၊ မောက်ချ creates low tone
ိ (ဣ) လုံးကြီးတင် creates an i sound at creaky tone ( e.g. English seat)
ီ (ဤ) လုံးကြီးတင်ဆန်ခတ် creates an i sound at low tone
ု (ဥ) တစ်ချောင်းငင် creates a u sound at creaky tone (e.g. English truce)
ူ (ဦ) နှစ်ချောင်းငင် creates a u sound at low tone
ေ (ဧ) သဝေထိုး creates an ei sound at high tone (e.g. English cane)
ဲ (ဩ) နောက်ပစ် creates an è sound at high tone (e.g. English pet)
အသတ်, တံခွန် ဝိရမ; modifies the sound quality of a letter and varies with letters (usually creates a consonant final)
◌း ဝစ္စပေါက်, ရှေ့ကပေါက်, ရှေ့ဆီး Visarga; creates high tone, but cannot be used alone
သေးသေးတင် Anunaasika, creates nasalised -n final
အောက်မြစ် Anusvara, creates short tone
used exclusively for Pali
used exclusively for Pali

One or more of these accents can be added to a consonant to change its sound. In addition, other modifying symbols are used to differentiate tone and sound, but are not considered diacritics.

Ligatures[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Specific consonants (a final and the following consonant), when placed next to one another, may be stacked, with the final placed underneath the consonant. They are considered ligatures, and are typically used to abbreviate, but are not necessary and are primarily used to denote Pali or Sanskrit origin.

ဂဏန်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

A decimal numbering system is used, and numbers are written in the same order as Hindu-Arabic numerals.

The numerals from zero to nine are: ၀၊ ၁၊ ၂၊ ၃၊ ၄၊ ၆၊ ၇၊ ၈ နှင့် ၉ (Unicode 1040 to 1049). Separators (such as commas) to group digits are not used.

Another set of digits from zero to nine is used in the Shan language.

ပုဒ်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

There are two primary break characters in Burmese, drawn as one or two downward strokes (၊ or ။), which respectively act as a comma and a full stop. ၏ is used as a full stop if the sentence immediately ends with a verb. ၍ is roughly the equivalent of a comma and is used to connect two trains of thought.

ယူနီကုဒ်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The Unicode range for writing Burmese and other languages of Myanmar is U+1000–U+109F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.

Myanmar
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+100x က
U+101x
U+102x
U+103x
U+104x
U+105x
U+106x
U+107x
U+108x
U+109x        

For writing the basic Burmese language, only U+1000–U+104F is needed:

  • the basic abugida for Burmese and other languages of Myanmar:
    • U+1000–U+1020: the 33 base consonants.
    • U+1021–U+102A: the 10 independent vowels (including 1 variant needed for Shan and 1 variant needed for Mon).
    • U+102B–U+1035: the 11 dependent vowels (diacritics combining on the right, above, below, or left of the base consonant).
    • U+1036–U+103A: the 5 diacritic signs (anusvara, tone mark, visarga, virama, visible virama).
    • U+103B–U+103E: the 4 medial consonant signs (diacritics combining on the right, around, or below).
 
  • U+103F: the Myanmar letter "Great Sa".
  • U+1040–U+1049: the 10 digits.
  • U+104A–U+104B: the 2 punctuation signs (section signs).
  • U+104C–U+104F: the 4 symbols (locative, completed, aforementioned, genitive).

The rest of the chart contains extensions for other languages:

  • Extensions for Pali and Sanskrit:
    • U+1050–U+1051: the 2 base consonants.
    • U+1052–U+1055: the 4 independent vowels.
    • U+1056–U+1059: the 4 dependent vowels (diacritics combining on the right or below).
  • Extensions for Mon:
    • U+105A–U+105D: the 4 base consonants.
    • U+105E–U+1060: the 3 medial consonant signs (diacritics combining below).
  • Extensions for S’gaw Karen:
    • U+1061: the 1 base consonant.
    • U+1062: the 1 vowel sign (diacritic on the left).
    • U+1063–U+1064: the 2 medial consonant signs (diacritics combining on the right).
  • Extensions for Western Pwo Karen:
    • U+1065–U+1066: the 2 base consonants.
    • U+1067–U+1068: the 2 vowel signs (diacritics combining on the right).
    • U+1069–U+106D: the 5 tone signs (diacritics combining on the right).
  • Extensions for Eastern Pwo Karen:
    • U+106E–U+1070: the 3 base consonants.
 
  • Extensions for Geba Karen:
    • U+1071: the 1 vowel sign (diacritic combining above).
  • Extensions for Kayah:
    • U+1072–U+1074: the 3 vowel signs (diacritics combining above).
  • Extensions for Shan:
    • U+1075–U+1081: the 13 base consonants.
    • U+1082: the 1 medial consonant signs (diacritic combining below).
    • U+1083–U+1086: the 4 vowel signs (diacritic combining on the right, left or above).
    • U+1087–U+108D: the 7 tone signs (diacritics combining on the right or below).
  • Extensions for Rumai Palaung:
    • U+108E: the 1 base consonant.
    • U+108F: the 1 tone sign (diacritics combining on the right).
  • Extensions for Shan:
    • U+1090–U+1099: the 10 digits.
    • U+109E–U+109D: the 2 symbols.

The 4 code points U+109A–U+109D are still not assigned.

ရည်ညှန်းချက်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ပြည်ပဆက်သွယ်ရေး[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]