ဤဆောင်းပါးကို မြန်မာဘာသာသို့ ပြန်ဆိုရန် လိုအပ်နေသေးသည်။
|ဆဋ္ဌမမြောက် ဂျော့ ဘုရင်|
Formal photograph, 1940–46
|King of the United Kingdom|
and the British Dominions ပိုမို၍
|12 May 1937||၁၁ ဒီဇင်ဘာ ၁၉၃၆ – 6 February 1952|
|ထီးနန်းစိုးစံခြင်း||၁၂ မေလ ၁၉၃၇|
|ရှေ့မင်းဆက်||ဒဿမမြောက် အက်ဒွပ် ဘုရင်|
|နောက်မင်းဆက်||ဒုတိယမြောက် အယ်လိဇဘက် ဘုရင်မ|
|မွေးဖွား||၁၄ ဒီဇင်ဘာ၊ ၁၈၉၅|
York Cottage, Sandringham House, Norfolk, United Kingdom
|ကွယ်လွန်||၆ ဖေဖော်ဝါရီလ ၁၉၅၂ (သက်တော် ၅၆ နှစ်)|
ဆဲရင်းဟမ်း အိမ်တော်, နောဖော့ခ်, ဗြိတိသျှပြည်ထောင်စု
|ထာဝရ အိပ်စက်ရာ နေရာ||15 February 1952|
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
|အိမ်ထောင်ဖက်||Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (m. ၁၉၂၃)|
|စံအိမ်||Windsor (from 1917) |
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (until 1917)
|မယ်တော်||Mary of Teck|
|လက်မှတ်||ဆဋ္ဌမမြောက် ဂျော့ဘုရင်၏ လက်မှတ်|
ဆဋ္ဌမမြောက်ဂျော့ဘုရင် (အဲဘတ် ဖရက်ဒရစ် အာသာ ဂျော့၊ ၁၄ ဒီဇင်ဘာ ၁၈၉၅ - ၆ ဖေဖော်ဝါရီ ၁၉၅၂) သည် ယူနိုက်တက်ကင်းဒန်းနိုင်ငံ၏ ဘုရင်ဖြစ်ခဲ့ပြီး ၁၉၃၆ ခုနှစ်၊ ဒီဇင်ဘာ ၁၁ ရက်နေ့မှစ၍ ကွယ်လွန်ချိန်အထိ ဗြိတိသျှ ဓနသယာယ နိုင်ငံများ၏ အဦးအစီ: ဖြစ်ခဲ့သည်။ အိန္ဒိယအင်ပါယာ၏ နောက်ဆုံးသခင် ဖြစ်သကဲ့သို့ ဓနသယာယအဖွဲ့၏ ပထမဆုံးအကြီးအကဲလည်း ဖြစ်သည်။
နန်းတက်ပြီးချိန်၌ အဲဘတ် ဟု လူသိများလာသော်လည်း မိသားစုတွင်းနှင့် ရင်းနှီးသူများက ဘာတီ ဟု ခေါ်ကြသည်။ အဘွားဖြစ်သူ ဝိတိုရိယဘုရင်မဘက်မှ မွေးဖွားလာကာ အဘိုးဖြစ်သူ အဲဘတ်၏ အမည်ကို ယူထားခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။ ပဉ္စမမြောက်ဂျော့ဘုရင် ၏ ဒုတိယမြောက်သားဖြစ်သောကြောင့် ထီးနန်းဆက်ဆံရန် မမျှော်လင့်ဘဲ ငယ်ဘဝကို အစ်ကိုဖြစ်သူ အက်ဒဝပ်၏ အရိပ်အောက်တွင် နေရသည်။ အရွယ်ရောက်သော် ရေကြောင်းကောလိပ်တက်ကာ ပထမကမ္ဘာစစ်အတွင်း တော်ဝင်ရေတပ်မတော်နှင့် တော်ဝင်လေတပ်မတော်တို့တွင် အမှုထမ်းသည်။ ၁၉၂၀ ခုနှစ်တွင် ယော့မြို့စား ဖြစ်လာသည်။ အဲလိဇဘတ် ဘိုဝီလီယွန် (Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon) နှင့် ၁၉၂၃ တွင်လက်ထက်ပြီး အဲလိဇဘတ်နှင့် မာဂရက်ဟူသော သမီးနှစ်ဦး ရခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၂၀ နှစ်လယ်ပိုင်းတွင် ငယ်စဉ်က မဖျောက်နိုင်ခဲ့သည့် စကားထစ်ခြင်းကို ကုသနိုင်မည့်ကုထုံး တွေ့သည်။
ဖခင်နတ်ရွာစံပြီးနောက် ၁၉၃၆ ခုနှစ်တွင် အစ်ကိုဖြစ်သူက အဌမမြောက်အက်ဒဝပ်ဘုရင် အဖြစ် နန်းတက်သည်။ သို့သော်လည်း နှစ်ကုန်ပိုင်းတွင်ပင် အမေရိကန်လူမျိုး မုဆိုးမ ဝဲလစ် ဆင်ပဆန် အား လက်ထပ်လိုကြောင်း ပြောသည်။ ဗြိတိသျှ ဝန်ကြီးချုပ် စတန်လေ ဘဲ့ဝင်း (Stanley Baldwin) က နိုင်ငံရေးနှင့် ဘာသာရေးကန့်သတ်ချက်တို့ကြောင့် ထိုသို့မလုပ်သင့်ကြောင်း အကြံပေးသည်။ ဆင်ပဆန်အားလက်ထပ်ရန် အက်ဒဝပ်က နန်းစွန့်သွားသောအခါ ဝင်ဆာအိမ်တော် (House of Windsor) ၏ တတိယမြောက်ထီးနန်းဆက်ခံသူအဖြစ် ဂျော့က သရဖူဆောင်းခွင့်ရသည်။
ဂျော့ အုပ်ချုပ်စဉ်ကာလသည် ဗြိတိသျှအင်ပါယာ ပြိုကွဲစပြုနေပြီး ဓနသယာယနိုင်ငံဟူ၍ ဖွဲ့စည်းရန် အရှိန်ယူစဉ်ကာလ ဖြစ်သည်။ ဂျော့ နန်းတက်ချိန်တွင် အိုင်းရစ်လွတ်လပ်သောပြည်နယ်၏ပါလီမန်က တိုင်းပြည်၏ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံတွင် ဘုရင်ပါဝင်မှုကို ဖယ်ရှားလိုက်သည်။ နောက်တစ်နှစ်တွင် အိုင်းရစ်၏ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံသစ်ရေးကာ ပြည်နယ်၏အမည်ကို အိုင်ယာလန်ဟုပြောင်းပြီး သမ္မတရုံးသစ် ဖွင့်သည်။ ၁၉၃၉ ခုနှစ်တွင် အိုင်ယာလန်မပါသည့် ဓနသယာယနိုင်ငံများနှင့် နာဇီဂျာမနီတို့ စစ်ဖြစ်သည်။ ၁၉၄၀ တွင် အီတလီ၊ ၁၉၄၁ တွင် ဂျပန်တို့ စစ်အတွင်း အသီးသီးပါဝင်လာသည်။ ၁၉၄၅ တွင် ဗြိတိန်နှင့် အပေါင်းအပါများက စစ်နိုင်ခဲ့သော်လည်း ဆိုဗီယက်နှင့် အမေရိကန်တို့ ကမ္ဘာ့ရှေ့တန်းသို့ရောက်လာကာ ဗြိတိသျှအင်ပါယာမှာ တဖြည်းဖြည်းမှေးမှိန်လာသည်။ ၁၉၄၇ တွင် အိန္ဒိယနှင့် ပါကစ္စတန်တို့အား လွတ်လပ်ရေးပေးသော်လည်း ဂျော့မှာ ဘုရင်အဖြစ် ဆက်ရှိနေသည်။ ၁၉၄၈ ခုနှစ်၊ ဇွန်လရောက်မှသာ အိန္ဒိယအင်ပါယာဟူသောအမည်ကို ဖျက်သိမ်းလိုက်သည်။ ၁၉၄၉ ခုနှစ်တွင် ဓနသယာယနိုင်ငံများမှထွက်ကာ သီးခြားသမ္မတနိုင်ငံအဖြစ် အိုင်ယာလန်က ကျေညာသည်။ နောက်တစ်နှစ်တွင် အိန္ဒိယကလည်း သမ္မတနိုင်ငံဖြစ်လာသည်။ ဂျော့က ဓနသဟာယနိုင်ငံများအကြီ:အကဲဟူသောအမည်ကို ပြောင်းလဲသုံးစွဲသည်။ နောက်ပိုင်းနန်းစံနှစ်များမှာ ကျန်းမာရေးပြဿနာများနှင့် ရှုပ်ထွေးနေပြီး နတ်ရွာစံသော် သမီးကြီး ဒုတိယမြောက်အဲလိဇဘတ်ဘုရင်မ က နန်းတက်သည်။
- ၁ အစောပိုင်းကာလ
- ၂ စစ်မှုထမ်းကာလ နှင့် ပညာရေး
- ၃ လက်ထပ်ထိမ်းမြားခြင်း
- ၄ Reluctant king
- ၅ အစောပိုင်း ထီးနန်းစိုးစံစဉ်ကာလ
- ၆ ဒုတိယကမ္ဘာစစ်ကြီး
- ၇ Empire to Commonwealth
- ၈ နာမကျန်းဖြစ်မှု နှင့် ကွယ်လွန်ခြင်း
- ၉ ပြောစမှတ်တွင်မှု
- ၁၀ Titles, styles, honours and arms
- ၁၁ မှတ်စု
- ၁၂ ကိုးကား
George was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria. His father was Prince George, Duke of York (later King George V), the second and eldest-surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). His mother was the Duchess of York (later Queen Mary), the eldest child and only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck.
His birthday (14 December 1895) was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather, Albert, Prince Consort. Uncertain of how the Prince Consort's widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been "rather distressed". Two days later, he wrote again: "I really think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albert to her". Queen Victoria was mollified by the proposal to name the new baby Albert, and wrote to the Duchess of York: "I am all impatience to see the new one, born on such a sad day but rather more dear to me, especially as he will be called by that dear name which is a byword for all that is great and good". Consequently, he was baptised "Albert Frederick Arthur George" at St. Mary Magdalene's Church near Sandringham three months later.[မှတ်စု ၁] Within the family, he was known informally as "Bertie". His maternal grandmother, the Duchess of Teck, did not like the first name the baby had been given, and she wrote prophetically that she hoped the last name "may supplant the less favoured one". Albert was fourth in line to the throne at birth, after his grandfather, father and elder brother, Edward.
He often suffered from ill health and was described as "easily frightened and somewhat prone to tears". His parents were generally removed from their children's day-to-day upbringing, as was the norm in aristocratic families of that era. He had a stammer that lasted for many years. Although naturally left-handed, he was forced to write with his right hand, as was common practice at the time. He suffered from chronic stomach problems as well as knock knees, for which he was forced to wear painful corrective splints.
Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, and the Prince of Wales succeeded her as King Edward VII. Prince Albert moved up to third in line to the throne, after his father and elder brother.
စစ်မှုထမ်းကာလ နှင့် ပညာရေး[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
From 1909, Albert attended the Royal Naval College, Osborne, as a naval cadet. In 1911, he came bottom of the class in the final examination, but despite this he progressed to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. When his grandfather, Edward VII, died in 1910, Albert's father became King George V. Edward became Prince of Wales, with Albert second in line to the throne.
Albert spent the first six months of 1913 on the training ship HMS Cumberland in the West Indies and on the east coast of Canada. He was rated as a midshipman aboard HMS Collingwood on 15 September 1913, and spent three months in the Mediterranean. His fellow officers gave him the nickname "Mr. Johnson". One year after his commission, he began service in the First World War. He was mentioned in despatches for his action as a turret officer aboard Collingwood in the Battle of Jutland (31 May – 1 June 1916), an indecisive engagement with the German navy that was the largest naval action of the war. He did not see further combat, largely because of ill health caused by a duodenal ulcer, for which he had an operation in November 1917.
In February 1918, he was appointed Officer in Charge of Boys at the Royal Naval Air Service's training establishment at Cranwell. With the establishment of the Royal Air Force two months later and the reassignment of Cranwell from Admiralty to Air Ministry responsibility, Albert transferred from the Royal Navy to the Royal Air Force. He was appointed Officer Commanding Number 4 Squadron of the Boys' Wing at Cranwell until August 1918, before reporting to the RAF's Cadet School at St Leonards-on-Sea. He completed a fortnight's training and took command of a squadron on the Cadet Wing. He was the first member of the royal family to be certified as a fully qualified pilot.
Albert wanted to serve on the Continent while the war was still in progress and was pleased to be posted to General Trenchard's staff. On 23 October he flew across the Channel to Autigny. For the closing weeks of the war, he served on the staff of the RAF's Independent Air Force at its headquarters in Nancy, France. Following the disbanding of the Independent Air Force in November 1918, he remained on the Continent for two months as an RAF staff officer until posted back to Britain. He accompanied the Belgian monarch King Albert I on his triumphal reentry into Brussels on 22 November. Albert qualified as an RAF pilot on 31 July 1919 and was promoted to squadron leader the following day.
In October 1919, Albert went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied history, economics and civics for a year, with the historian R. V. Laurence as his "official mentor". On 4 June 1920, he was created Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney. He began to take on more royal duties. He represented his father, and toured coal mines, factories, and railyards. Through such visits he acquired the nickname of the "Industrial Prince". His stammer, and his embarrassment over it, together with his tendency to shyness, caused him to appear much less impressive than his older brother, Edward. However, he was physically active and enjoyed playing tennis. He played at Wimbledon in the Men's Doubles with Louis Greig in 1926, losing in the first round. He developed an interest in working conditions, and was President of the Industrial Welfare Society. His series of annual summer camps for boys between 1921 and 1939 brought together boys from different social backgrounds.
In a time when royalty were expected to marry fellow royalty, it was unusual that Albert had a great deal of freedom in choosing a prospective wife. An infatuation with the already-married Australian socialite Sheila, Lady Loughborough, came to an end in April 1920 when the King, with the promise of the dukedom of York, persuaded Albert to stop seeing her. That year, he met for the first time since childhood Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the youngest daughter of the Earl and Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne. He became determined to marry her. She rejected his proposal twice, in 1921 and 1922, reportedly because she was reluctant to make the sacrifices necessary to become a member of the royal family. In the words of Lady Elizabeth's mother, Albert would be "made or marred" by his choice of wife. After a protracted courtship, Elizabeth agreed to marry him.
They were married on 26 April 1923 in Westminster Abbey. Albert's marriage to someone not of royal birth was considered a modernising gesture. The newly formed British Broadcasting Company wished to record and broadcast the event on radio, but the Abbey Chapter vetoed the idea (although the Dean, Herbert Edward Ryle, was in favour).
Because of his stammer, Albert dreaded public speaking. After his closing speech at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley on 31 October 1925, one which was an ordeal for both him and his listeners, he began to see Lionel Logue, an Australian-born speech therapist. The Duke and Logue practised breathing exercises, and the Duchess rehearsed with him patiently. Subsequently, he was able to speak with less hesitation. With his delivery improved, the Duke opened the new Parliament House in Canberra, Australia, during a tour of the empire in 1927. His journey by sea to Australia, New Zealand and Fiji took him via Jamaica, where Albert played doubles tennis partnered with a black man, Bertrand Clark, which was unusual at the time and taken locally as a display of equality between races.
The Duke and Duchess of York had two children: Elizabeth (called "Lilibet" by the family), and Margaret. The Duke and Duchess and their two daughters lived a relatively sheltered life at their London residence, 145 Piccadilly. They were a close and loving family. One of the few stirs arose when the Canadian Prime Minister, R. B. Bennett, considered the Duke for Governor General of Canada in 1931—a proposal that King George V rejected on the advice of the Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, J. H. Thomas.
King George V had severe reservations about Prince Edward, saying, "I pray God that my eldest son will never marry and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne." On 20 January 1936, George V died and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. In the Vigil of the Princes, Prince Albert and his three brothers took a shift standing guard over their father's body as it lay in state, in a closed casket, in Westminster Hall.
As Edward was unmarried and had no children, Albert was the heir presumptive to the throne. Less than a year later, on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated in order to marry his mistress, Wallis Simpson, who was divorced from her first husband and divorcing her second. Edward had been advised by British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin that he could not remain king and marry a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands. Edward chose abdication in preference to abandoning his marriage plans. Thus Albert became king, a position he was reluctant to accept. The day before the abdication, he went to London to see his mother, Queen Mary. He wrote in his diary, "When I told her what had happened, I broke down and sobbed like a child."
On the day of the abdication, the Oireachtas, the parliament of the Irish Free State, removed all direct mention of the monarch from the Irish constitution. The next day, it passed the External Relations Act, which gave the monarch limited authority (strictly on the advice of the government) to appoint diplomatic representatives for Ireland and to be involved in the making of foreign treaties. The two acts made the Irish Free State a republic in essence without removing its links to the Commonwealth.
Courtier and journalist Dermot Morrah alleged that there was brief speculation as to the desirability of bypassing Albert (and his children) and his brother, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, in favour of their younger brother Prince George, Duke of Kent. This seems to have been suggested on the grounds that Prince George was at that time the only brother with a son.
Albert assumed the regnal name "George VI" to emphasise continuity with his father and restore confidence in the monarchy. The beginning of George VI's reign was taken up by questions surrounding his predecessor and brother, whose titles, style and position were uncertain. He had been introduced as "His Royal Highness Prince Edward" for the abdication broadcast, but George VI felt that by abdicating and renouncing the succession, Edward had lost the right to bear royal titles, including "Royal Highness". In settling the issue, George's first act as king was to confer upon his brother the title "Duke of Windsor" with the style "Royal Highness", but the letters patent creating the dukedom prevented any wife or children from bearing royal styles. George VI was forced to buy from Edward the royal residences of Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House, as these were private properties and did not pass to George VI automatically. Three days after his accession, on his 41st birthday, he invested his wife, the new queen consort, with the Order of the Garter.
George VI's coronation at Westminster Abbey took place on 12 May 1937, the date previously intended for Edward's coronation. In a break with tradition, Queen Mary attended the ceremony in a show of support for her son. There was no Durbar held in Delhi for George VI, as had occurred for his father, as the cost would have been a burden to the government of India. Rising Indian nationalism made the welcome that the royal party would have received likely to be muted at best, and a prolonged absence from Britain would have been undesirable in the tense period before the Second World War. Two overseas tours were undertaken, to France and to North America, both of which promised greater strategic advantages in the event of war.
The growing likelihood of war in Europe dominated the early reign of George VI. The King was constitutionally bound to support Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Hitler. However, when the King and Queen greeted Chamberlain on his return from negotiating the Munich Agreement in 1938, they invited him to appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace with them. This public association of the monarchy with a politician was exceptional, as balcony appearances were traditionally restricted to the royal family. While broadly popular among the general public, Chamberlain's policy towards Hitler was the subject of some opposition in the House of Commons, which led historian John Grigg to describe the King's behaviour in associating himself so prominently with a politician as "the most unconstitutional act by a British sovereign in the present century".
In May and June 1939, the King and Queen toured Canada and the United States. From Ottawa, they were accompanied throughout by Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, to present themselves in North America as King and Queen of Canada. George was the first reigning monarch of Canada to visit North America, although he had been to Canada previously as Prince Albert and as Duke of York. Both Governor General of Canada Lord Tweedsmuir and Mackenzie King hoped that the King's presence in Canada would demonstrate the principles of the Statute of Westminster 1931, which gave full sovereignty to the British Dominions. On 19 May, George VI personally accepted and approved the Letter of Credence of the new U.S. Ambassador to Canada, Daniel Calhoun Roper; gave Royal Assent to nine parliamentary bills; and ratified two international treaties with the Great Seal of Canada. The official royal tour historian, Gustave Lanctot, wrote "the Statute of Westminster had assumed full reality" and George gave a speech emphasising "the free and equal association of the nations of the Commonwealth".
The trip was intended to soften the strong isolationist tendencies among the North American public with regard to the developing tensions in Europe. Although the aim of the tour was mainly political, to shore up Atlantic support for the United Kingdom in any future war, the King and Queen were enthusiastically received by the public. The fear that George would be compared unfavourably to his predecessor, Edward VIII, was dispelled. They visited the 1939 New York World's Fair and stayed with President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the White House and at his private estate at Hyde Park, New York. A strong bond of friendship was forged between the King and Queen and the President during the tour, which had major significance in the relations between the United States and the United Kingdom through the ensuing war years.
In September 1939, Britain and the self-governing Dominions other than Ireland, declared war on Nazi Germany. George VI and his wife resolved to stay in London, despite German bombing raids. They officially stayed in Buckingham Palace throughout the war, although they usually spent nights at Windsor Castle. The first night of the Blitz on London, on 7 September 1940, killed about one thousand civilians, mostly in the East End. On 13 September, the King and Queen narrowly avoided death when two German bombs exploded in a courtyard at Buckingham Palace while they were there. In defiance, the Queen famously declared: "I am glad we have been bombed. It makes me feel we can look the East End in the face." The royal family were portrayed as sharing the same dangers and deprivations as the rest of the country. They were subject to rationing restrictions, and U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt remarked on the rationed food served and the limited bathwater that was permitted during a stay at the unheated and boarded-up Palace. In August 1942, the King's brother, Prince George, Duke of Kent, was killed on active service.
In 1940, Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister, though personally George would have preferred to appoint Lord Halifax. After the King's initial dismay over Churchill's appointment of Lord Beaverbrook to the Cabinet, he and Churchill developed "the closest personal relationship in modern British history between a monarch and a Prime Minister". Every Tuesday for four and a half years from September 1940, the two men met privately for lunch to discuss the war in secret and with frankness.
Throughout the war, the King and Queen provided morale-boosting visits throughout the United Kingdom, visiting bomb sites, munitions factories, and troops. The King visited military forces abroad in France in December 1939, North Africa and Malta in June 1943, Normandy in June 1944, southern Italy in July 1944, and the Low Countries in October 1944. Their high public profile and apparently indefatigable determination secured their place as symbols of national resistance. At a social function in 1944, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, revealed that every time he met Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery, he thought Montgomery was after his job. The King replied: "You should worry, when I meet him, I always think he's after mine!"
In 1945, crowds shouted "We want the King!" in front of Buckingham Palace during the Victory in Europe Day celebrations. In an echo of Chamberlain's appearance, the King invited Churchill to appear with the royal family on the balcony to public acclaim.
In January 1946, George addressed the United Nations at their first assembly, which was held in London, and reaffirmed "our faith in the equal rights of men and women and of nations great and small".
Empire to Commonwealth[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
George VI's reign saw the acceleration of the dissolution of the British Empire. The Statute of Westminster 1931 had already acknowledged the evolution of the Dominions into separate sovereign states. The process of transformation from an empire to a voluntary association of independent states, known as the Commonwealth, gathered pace after the Second World War. During the ministry of Clement Attlee, British India became the two independent Dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947. George relinquished the title of Emperor of India, and became King of India and King of Pakistan instead. In 1950 he ceased to be King of India when it became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations and recognised his new title of Head of the Commonwealth; he remained King of Pakistan until his death. Other countries left the Commonwealth, such as Burma in January 1948, Palestine (divided between Israel and the Arab states) in May 1948 and the Republic of Ireland in 1949.
In 1947, the King and his family toured Southern Africa. The Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa, Jan Smuts, was facing an election and hoped to make political capital out of the visit. George was appalled, however, when instructed by the South African government to shake hands only with whites, and referred to his South African bodyguards as "the Gestapo". Despite the tour, Smuts lost the election the following year, and the new government instituted a strict policy of racial segregation.
နာမကျန်းဖြစ်မှု နှင့် ကွယ်လွန်ခြင်း[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
The stress of the war had taken its toll on the King's health, made worse by his heavy smoking and subsequent development of lung cancer among other ailments, including arteriosclerosis and Buerger's disease. A planned tour of Australia and New Zealand was postponed after the King suffered an arterial blockage in his right leg, which threatened the loss of the leg and was treated with a right lumbar sympathectomy in March 1949.
His elder daughter Elizabeth, the heir presumptive, took on more royal duties as her father's health deteriorated. The delayed tour was re-organised, with Elizabeth and her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, taking the place of the King and Queen. The King was well enough to open the Festival of Britain in May 1951, but on 23 September 1951, his left lung was removed by Clement Price Thomas after a malignant tumour was found. In October 1951, Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh went on a month-long tour of Canada; the trip had been delayed for a week due to the King's illness. At the State Opening of Parliament in November, the King's speech from the throne was read for him by the Lord Chancellor, Lord Simonds. His Christmas broadcast of 1951 was recorded in sections, and then edited together.
On 31 January 1952, despite advice from those close to him, the King went to London Airport[မှတ်စု ၂] to see off Princess Elizabeth, who was going on her tour of Australia via Kenya. On the morning of 6 February, George VI was found dead in bed at Sandringham House in Norfolk. He had died from a coronary thrombosis in his sleep at the age of 56. His daughter flew back to Britain from Kenya as Queen Elizabeth II.
From 9 February for two days his coffin rested in St. Mary Magdalene Church, Sandringham, before lying in state at Westminster Hall from 11 February. His funeral took place at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on the 15th. He was interred initially in the Royal Vault until he was transferred to the King George VI Memorial Chapel inside St. George's on 26 March 1969. In 2002, fifty years after his death, the remains of his widow, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, and the ashes of his younger daughter Princess Margaret, who both died that year, were interred in the chapel alongside him.
In the words of Labour Member of Parliament George Hardie, the abdication crisis of 1936 did "more for republicanism than fifty years of propaganda". George VI wrote to his brother Edward that in the aftermath of the abdication he had reluctantly assumed "a rocking throne" and tried "to make it steady again". He became king at a point when public faith in the monarchy was at a low ebb. During his reign his people endured the hardships of war, and imperial power was eroded. However, as a dutiful family man and by showing personal courage, he succeeded in restoring the popularity of the monarchy.
The George Cross and the George Medal were founded at the King's suggestion during the Second World War to recognise acts of exceptional civilian bravery. He bestowed the George Cross on the entire "island fortress of Malta" in 1943. He was posthumously awarded the Ordre de la Libération by the French government in 1960, one of only two people (the other being Churchill) to be awarded the medal after 1946.
A number of geographical features, roads, and institutions are named after George VI. These include King George Hospital in London; King George VI Reservoir in Surrey, United Kingdom; King George VI Highway and King George Boulevard in Surrey, British Columbia; Kingsway in Edmonton; George VI Sound in Antarctica; and the King George VI Chase, a horse race in the United Kingdom.
Colin Firth won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance as George VI in The King's Speech, a 2010 film that won the Academy Award for Best Picture.
Titles, styles, honours and arms[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Titles and styles[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
- 14 December 1895 – 28 May 1898: His Highness Prince Albert of York
- 28 May 1898 – 22 January 1901: His Royal Highness Prince Albert of York
- 22 January 1901 – 9 November 1901: His Royal Highness Prince Albert of Cornwall and York
- 9 November 1901 – 6 May 1910: His Royal Highness Prince Albert of Wales
- 6 May 1910 – 4 June 1920: His Royal Highness The Prince Albert
- 4 June 1920 – 11 December 1936: His Royal Highness The Duke of York
- 11 December 1936 – 6 February 1952: His Majesty The King
- In British India, 11 December 1936 – 14 August 1947: His Imperial Majesty The King, Emperor of India
George held a number of titles throughout his life, as successively great-grandson, grandson and son of the monarch. As sovereign, he was referred to most often as simply The King or His Majesty. In his position as sovereign, George automatically held the position of Commander-in-Chief.
As Duke of York, George bore the royal arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing an anchor azure—a difference earlier awarded to his father, George V, when he was Duke of York, and then later awarded to his grandson Prince Andrew, Duke of York. As king, he bore the royal arms undifferenced.
- His godparents were: Queen Victoria (his great-grandmother, for whom his grandmother the Princess of Wales stood proxy); the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg (his maternal great-aunt and great-uncle, for whom his grandfather the Duke of Teck and his paternal aunt Princess Maud of Wales stood proxy); Empress Frederick (his paternal great-aunt, for whom his paternal aunt Princess Victoria of Wales stood proxy); the Crown Prince of Denmark (his great-uncle, for whom his grandfather the Prince of Wales stood proxy); the Duke of Connaught (his great-uncle); the Duchess of Fife (his paternal aunt); and Prince Adolphus of Teck (his maternal uncle).
- Renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966.
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