ဟတ်ကာလူမျိုး

ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား မှ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်

ဟတ်ကာလူမျိုး (တရုတ်: 客家; အင်္ဂလိပ်: Hakka)[၁][၂] သည် ဟန်တရုတ် အုပ်စုဝင်ဖြစ်သည်။ ဟတ်ကာတို့သည် တရုတ်ပြည်မကြီး| အင်္ဂလိပ်:Mainland China ၏ အောက်ဖော်ပြပါဒေသတွင် အများစုနေထိုင်ကြပါသည်၊

  1. ကွမ်တုန်း ပြည်နယ် - Guangdong (广东)
  2. ဖူကျန့် ပြည်နယ် - Fujian (福建)
  3. ကျန်းစီ ပြည်နယ် - Jiangxi (江西)
  4. ကွမ်စီ ပြည်နယ် Guangxi - (广西)
  5. စစ်ချွမ်း ပြည်နယ် - Sichuan (四川)
  6. ဟူနန် ပြည်နယ် - Hunan (湖南)
  7. ကျဲ့ကျန်း ပြည်နယ် - Zhejiang (浙江)
  8. ကွေ့ကျိုး ပြည်နယ် - Guizhou (贵州)
  9. ဟိုင်နန် ပြည်နယ် - Hainan (海南)
"Hakka" ကို ဤနေရာသို့ ညွှန်းသည်။ အခြား အသုံးအနှုန်းများ အတွက် Hakka (သံတူကြောင်းကွဲ) တွင်ရှုပါ။
Hakka people
客家, Hak-kâ
客家漢族[၁]
Hakka woman.jpg
A Hakka woman wearing a traditional hat.
လူဦးရေ စုစုပေါင်း
c. 80 million to 120 million worldwide[၃][၄]
အများစု နေထိုင်သည့် နေရာ
ဘာသာစကား
Hakka Chinese (native)
Hokkien (Taiwanese Hakkas)
Cantonese (Hong Kong and Macau)
Mandarin Chinese (auxiliary)
ကိုးကွယ်မှု
Predominantly Chinese folk religions (Confucianism, Taoism, ancestral worship and others), Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity, non-religious and others
ဆက်စပ် တိုင်းရင်းသား အုပ်စုများ
Other Han Chinese groups
ဟတ်ကာလူမျိုး
တရုတ် 客家人
ဆိုလိုရင်း"Guest Families"

သညာအမှတ်[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

ဟတ်ကာ () ဆိုသည်မှာ ဧည့်သည်ဖြစ်သည်။[၅]ဟတ်ကာတို့သည် မျက်မှောက်ခေတ်ကာလတွင် ရှေးဘိုးဘွားများထက် အများအပြား တိုးတက်လာခဲ့သည်။ ဟတ်ကာလူမျိုးနှင့် ဟတ်ကာစကားတို့သည် ဟတ်ကာ၏ အမျိုးသားသင်္ကေတ ဖြစ်လာခဲ့သည်။

  • အထူးအားဖြင့် ဟတ်ကာတို့၏ မူလချက်မြှုပ်နှင့် ဆက်နွယ်နိုင်သည့် မြောက်ပိုင်းဒေသမှာ
    • ဟောနန် ပြည်နယ် - Henan (河南)
    • ဟူပေ ပြည်နယ် - Hubei (湖北) တို့မှ [၆]

လက်ရှိနေထိုင်လျက်ရှိသောတောင်ပိုင်းဒေသသို့ ရွေ့ပြောင်းခဲ့သည်။ ထို့မှတဖန် ကမ္ဘာ့တဝန်းသို့ ဆက်လက်ရွေ့ပြောင်းသွားကြသည်။ [၇]

ကမ္ဘာ့တဝန်းလုံး၌ တရုတ်ရွေ့ပြောင်းရပ်ဝန်းအုပ်စုဖြစ်ပေါ်လာခဲ့ရာ ဟတ်ကာရပ်ဝန်းအုပ်စုရှိ လူဦးရေသည် ခန့်မှန်းခြေ (၈၀) သန်း နှင့် (၁၂၀) သန်းကြား ရှိနိုင်သည်။ [၃][၈] တရုတ် အလယ်ပိုင်း မှ တောင်ပိုင်း သို့ ဟတ်ကာတို့ ရွှေ့ပြောင်းခဲ့ချိန် ထက်စော၍ ရောက်ရှိနေသော တခြားဟန်တရုတ်အုပ်စုဝင်တို့၏ ရိုးရာဓလေ့ထုံးတမ်းနှင့် စကားသည် ဟတ်ကာ၏ ရိုးရာဓလေ့ထုံးတမ်းများနှင့် စကားသည် အထူးခြားနားသည်။

The Tunbao and Chuanqing people are other Han Chinese subgroups that migrated from possibly somewhere in Central or Eastern China to Southwestern China while maintaining their ancestral traditions which differentiated them from the native Chinese people.

ဩဇာသက်ရောက်မှု[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

၁၉၈၄ ခုနစ် မှစတင်၍ ခေတ်သစ် တရုတ်ပြည်သူသမ္မတနိုင်ငံပုံဖော်လာကြသော အစိုးရအဖွဲ့နှင့် တပ်မတော် တို့ကို ဦးဆောင်နေသူအများအပြားသည် ဟတ်ကာလူမျိုးစုဖြစ်သည်။ ထို့ပြင် ပေါ်လစ်ဗျူရို နှင့် အမြဲတမ်းအဖွဲ့ဝင်များ၏ ထက်ဝက်ကျော်ပါဝင်သည်။[၉]

နိုင်ငံရေး[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Revolutionary, political and military leaders

China – Taiping Heavenly Kingdom[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Hong Xiuquan
(Fung Siew Chen)
洪秀全 1812–1864 Huaxian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Heavenly King (天王), 1851; Leader, Taiping Rebellion; The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天国), 1851–1864, established by Hong had, at one stage, occupied one-third of China, and almost toppled the Qing dynasty
Feng Yunshan
(Fung Yun San)
馮雲山
冯云山
1815–1852 Huaxian, Guangdong Longchuan, Guangdong South King (南王), 1851; Strategist of the Taiping Rebellion; Administrator of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during its early years
Yang Xiuqing
(Yong Siew Tshin)
楊秀清
杨秀清
1821–1856 Guiping, Guangxi Meixian, Guangdong East King (东王), 1851; Commander-in-chief, Taiping Army
Shi Dakai
(Sak Tat Hoi)
石達開
石达开
1831–1863 Guixian, Guangxi Heping, Guangdong Wing King (翼王), 1851; The youngest of the six top leaders of Taiping at the age of 19; Shi's heroics as an outstanding general were later to inspire his fellow Hakka clansman, Zhu De, who founded the Red Army (红军), later known as the People's Liberation Army (人民解放军)[၁၀] His mother was of Zhuang origin.
Li Xiucheng
(Lee Siew Sin)
李秀成 1823–1864 Tengxian, Guangxi Fengle, Guangdong Loyal King (忠王), 1858; One of the key leaders at the later stages of the Kingdom
Chen Yucheng
(Chin Nyuk Sin)
陳玉成
陈玉成
1837–1862 Tengxian, Guangxi Wengyuan, Guangdong Heroic King (英王), 1859; One of the key leaders at the later stages of the Kingdom
Hong Rengan
(Fung Yin Kon)
洪仁玕 1822–1864 Huaxian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Shield King (干王), 1859; Premier of the Kingdom; First person in China to advocate modern-style government and opening-up reforms

China – Qing dynasty[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Lai Enjue [၁၁]
(Lai En Cheok)
赖恩爵 1795–1848 Shenzhen Zijin, Guangdong Admiral (水师提督), Guangdong Navy, 1843–1848; Commander, Battle of Kowloon, First Opium War, 1839; Just before Lai died due to illness, he told his family clan that his wish was to see the return of Hong Kong to China; Ten days before the return of Hong Kong on 1 July 1997, more than a hundred of the Lai clan descendants from different parts of the world returned to their ancestral home to mark the event
Yan Botao [၁၂] 颜伯焘 1792–1855 Lianping, Guangdong Lianping, Guangdong Viceroy (总督), Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces, 1841–1842; Commander, Battle of Amoy, First Opium War, 1841
Feng Zicai
(Fung Tse Choi)
馮子才
冯子才
1818–1903 Qinzhou, Guangxi Bobai, Guangxi Commander-in-chief, Provincial Army (提督), 1862-; Commanding general, Sino-French War, 1884–1885; Feng was instrumental in the defeat of the French at the Battle of Bang Bo which led to the French Retreat from Lạng Sơn and the conclusion of the war
Liu Yongfu
(Liew Yun Fook)
劉永福
刘永福
1837–1917 Qinzhou, Guangxi Bobai, Guangxi Founder and commander of the celebrated Black Flag Army (黑旗军), 1857–1885; President, Republic of Formosa, 1895
Qiu Fengjia
(Hiew Fung Kap)
丘逢甲 1864–1912 Miaoli, Taiwan Jiaoling, Guangdong Commander, Taiwanese militia forces, Japanese invasion of Taiwan, 1895; Revolutionary leader, Xinhai Revolution; Guangdong Representative for the Republic of China Provisional Presidential Election, 1911; Feng Chia University in Taiwan is named in honour of Qiu
Liu Guangdi
(Liew Kong Tee)
劉光第
刘光第
1859–1898 Fushun, Sichuan Wuping, Fujian One of the "Six Gentlemen of the Hundred Days' Reform (戊戌六君子) – a group of six intellectuals executed by Empress Dowager Cixi for their attempts to help Guangxu Emperor implement the "Hundred Days' Reform" (戊戌变法)
Wen Shengcai[၁၃]
(Voon Sang Choi)
溫生才 1869–1911 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong One of the Four Martyrs of Honghuagang (红花岗四烈士); Wen assassinated the Manchu general, Fu Qi, in 1911; All of the four martyrs of Honghuagang are Hakkas

China – Republic of China[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Sun Yat-sen[၁၄][၁၅]
(Soon Tsung San)
孫中山
孙中山
1866–1925 Xiangshan, Guangdong Zijin, Guangdong Founding father of modern China; First President, Provisional Government of the Republic of China, 1912
Yao Yuping[၁၆] 姚雨平 1882–1974 Pingyuan, Guangdong Pingyuan, Guangdong General, 1912-; Commander-in-chief, Guangdong Northern Expeditionary Army (广东北伐军), Xinhai Revolution, 1911–1912; Yao's successive victories against the Qing Army were vital in the successful defence of the Provisional Government in Nanjing and the early abdication of Xuan Tong Emperor
Liao Zhongkai
(Liao Tshung Koi)
廖仲愷 1877–1925 San Francisco, USA Huiyang, Guangdong Sun Yat-sen's main advisor on financial matters; Liao was one of the three most powerful figures in Kuomintang when Sun died
Eugene Chen 陈友仁 1878–1944 San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago Meixian, Guangdong Outstanding Foreign Minister in the 1920s known for his success in promoting Sun Yat-sen's anti-imperialist foreign policies; Chen's father is a former Taiping
Huang Shaohong 黃紹竑 1895–1966 Rong County, Guangxi Rong County, Guangxi General; Warlord of the New Guangxi clique which controlled Guangxi and much of Guangdong, Hunan, and Hubei, 1924–1929
Chen Jitang
(Chin Tsi Thong)
陳濟棠
陈济棠
1890–1954 Fangcheng, Guangxi Bobai, Guangxi General First-class (four-star general), 1935-; Chen was a warlord known as the "Southern Heavenly King" (南天王) as he wielded absolute control of the government and army of autonomous Guangdong, 1929–1936
Chen Mingshu 陈铭枢 1889–1965 Bepu, Guangxi Bepu, Guangxi Acting Premier of the Republic of China, 1931–1932; General, 1947-; Commander-in-Chief, 19th Route Army (十九路军), Battle of Shanghai, 1931–1932; The 19th Route Army, which started off as a Regiment unit under the command of Chen in the First Division of the Guangdong Army, was one of Nationalist China best fighting forces
Deng Yanda 鄧演達
邓演达
1895–1931 Huiyang, Guangdong Huiyang, Guangdong Leftist Nationalist politician who, in 1930, founded the Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party, one of the eight non-communist, legally recognised political parties in the People's Republic of China today; Deng was a military commander in the elite First Division of the Guangdong Army
Sun Ke
(Soon Kho)
孫科
孙科
1895–1973 Xiangshan, Guangdong Zijin, Guangdong Premier of the Republic of China, 1932, 1948–1949
Xue Yue[၁၇]
(Siet Ngok)
薛岳 1896–1998 Lechang, Guangdong Rucheng, Hunan General First-class (four-star general), 1952-; Commander-in-chief, 9th War Zone, Second Sino-Japanese War, 1938–1945; Called "Patton of Asia" by the West and the "God of War" (战神) by the Chinese, Xue was China most outstanding general during the war against the Japanese
Zhang Fakui
(Tshong Fat Khui)
張發奎
张发奎
1896–1980 Shixing, Guangdong Shixing, Guangdong General, 1936-; Commander-in-chief, National Revolutionary Army ground forces, 1949; Commander-in-chief, 4th War Zone, Second Sino-Japanese War, 1939–1944; As Honorary President of the "Hong Kong Tsung Tsin Association" (香港崇正总会), the umbrella body for Hakkas in Hong Kong, Zhang initiated and organized the first World Hakka Congress in 1971
Huang Qixiang 黃琪翔 1898–1970 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong General, 1946-; Leftist Nationalist; Deputy Commander-in-chief, 5th War Zone (later 6th War Zone), Second Sino-Japanese War, 1938; Led the Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party, 1931–1938, after Deng Yanda's death; One of the two most outstanding generals (the other being fellow Hakka Ye Ting) during the First Expedition of the Northern Expedition, 1926, and was promoted to Commander, Fourth Army, for the Second Expedition, 1927, at the age of 28
Luo Zhuoying 羅卓英
罗卓英
1896–1961 Dabu, Guangdong Dabu, Guangdong General, 1946-; Commander-in-chief, 1st Route Expeditionary Forces, Burma (China first participation of a war overseas), 1942; Deputy Commander-in-chief, 9th War Zone, Second Sino-Japanese War, 1941
Huang Baitao 黄百韬 1900–1948 Tianjin Meixian, Guangdong General, 1948; Commander-in-chief, 7th Army Group; Twice recipient of the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun (the highest honour for a military commander); Huang committed suicide rather than surrendering after he was defeated at the Huaihai Campaign, the most decisive battle of the Chinese Civil War, in 1948
Fan Hanjie 范漢傑
范汉杰
1896–1976 Dabu, Guangdong Dabu, Guangdong Lieutenant General, 1945-; Deputy Commander-in-chief, National Revolutionary Army ground forces, 1948; Deputy Commander-in-chief, Dongbei (Manchuria) Force, Chinese Civil War, 1948; Deputy Commander-in-chief, 1st War Zone, Second Sino-Japanese War, 1945; Fan was one of the favourite generals of Chiang Kaishek
Wu Qiwei 吳奇偉
吳奇伟
1890–1953 Dabu, Guangdong Dabu, Guangdong Lieutenant General, 1935-; Governor of Hunan, 1945–1946; Commander-in-chief, Changjiang (Yangtze River) Defence Force, Second Sino-Japanese War, 1942–1944; Deputy Commander-in-chief, 4th War Zone (later 6th War Zone), Second Sino-Japanese War, 1939; Wu defected to the Communists in 1949
Miao Peinan 缪培南 1890–1970 Wuhua, Guangdong Wuhua, Guangdong Lieutenant General, 1936-; Commander-in-chief, 9th Army Group, Second Sino-Japanese War, 1940; Miao represented the Chinese government to accept the Japanese surrender in Guangdong, 1945
Xie Jinyuan
(Tsia Tshin Ngian)
謝晉元
谢晋元
1905–1941 Jiaoling, Guangdong Jiaoling, Guangdong Major General, 1941; Commander, Defence of Sihang Warehouse, Shanghai, 1937; The heroism of Xie and the defenders of the warehouse which lifted flagging Chinese morale was made into films in 1938 and 1976 named "Eight Hundred Heroes" (八百壯士)
Yao Ziqing 姚子青 1909–1937 Pingyuan, Guangdong Pingyuan, Guangdong General; Commander during the Defence of Baoshan, part of the Battle of Shanghai, 1937; The heroism of Yao and the defenders of the Baoshan where all 600 soldiers but one lost their lives to defend the county was made into film named "Defenders" (捍衛者)

China – People's Republic[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Li Lisan 李立三 1899–1967 Liling, Hunan Liling, Hunan Top leader of Chinese Communist Party, 1928–1930
Zhu De[၁၈][၁၉] 朱德 1886–1976 Yilong, Sichuan Shaoguan, Guangdong Chairman of the National People's Congress (Head of State), People's Republic of China, 1975–1976; Marshal, 1955-; Founder and Commander-in-chief of the Red Army (红军), later known as the People's Liberation Army (人民解放军)
Ye Ting 葉挺
叶挺
1896–1946 Huiyang, Guangdong Huiyang, Guangdong Commander-In-chief, New Fourth Army, one of the two main Chinese communist forces fighting the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War (the other main communist force, Eighth Route Army, was commanded by Zhu De)
Ye Jianying
(Yap Kiam Yin)
葉劍英
叶剑英
1897–1986 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Chairman of the National People's Congress (Head of State), People's Republic of China, 1978–1983; Marshal, 1955-; Communist China first Governor of Guangdong, 1949–1953; Ye led the overthrow of the Gang of Four, which marked the end of the Cultural Revolution
Hu Yaobang[၂၀]
(Fu Yau Bong)
胡耀邦 1915–1989 Liuyang, Hunan Ji'an, Jiangxi Chairman of the Communist Party of China, 1981–1982; General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, 1980–1987; Both positions during these periods made Hu the highest-ranked in the Communist Party of China and the second most powerful person in China after Deng Xiaoping; In 1989, the memorial service for his death sparked off a pro-democracy movement which led to the Tiananmen Square protests
Liao Chengzhi
(Liau Sin Chee)
廖承志 1908–1983 Tokyo, Japan Huiyang, Guangdong Liao died four days after he was nominated to be the Vice-President, People's Republic of China; First Director, Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, 1978–1983
Liu Yalou 劉亞樓
刘亚楼
1910–1965 Wuping, Fujian Wuping, Fujian General, 1955-; First Commander-in-chief, People's Liberation Army Air Force, 1949–1965
Wang Shoudao 王首道 1906–1996 Liuyang, Hunan Liuyang, Hunan Vice-Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议), 1978–1983; Governor of Hunan, 1950–1952
Yang Chengwu
(Yong Sin Woo)
楊成武
杨成武
1904–2004 Changting, Fujian Changting, Fujian Vice-Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议), 1983–1988; General, 1955-; Acting Chief of General Staff, People's Liberation Army, 1965–1968
Xiao Hua 肖华 1916–1985 Xingguo, Jiangxi Xingguo, Jiangxi Youngest General at the age of 39, 1955; Vice-Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议), 1983–1985; Chief Political Commissar, People's Liberation Army, 1964–1967
Yang Yong 杨勇 1913–1983 Liuyang, Hunan Liuyang, Hunan Member, Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (中国共产党中央书记处), 1982–1983; General, 1955-; Deputy Chief of General Staff, People's Liberation Army, 1959; Governor of Guizhou, 1950–1951
Lai Chuanzhu 赖传珠 1910–1965 Ganxian, Jiangxi Ganxian, Jiangxi General, 1955-; Political Commissar, 15th Army Corps (later 13th Army Corps), Fourth Field Army, 1948–1950; Chief of Staff, New Fourth Army, 1941–1945; The life story of Lai was made into a television drama, "General Diary Complete" (将军日记), in 2011
Chen Qihan 陈奇涵 1910–1965 Ganxian, Jiangxi Ganxian, Jiangxi General, 1955-; First President, Military Court, People's Liberation Army, 1954–1957; Commander-in-chief, Jiangxi Military Region, 1949
Li Tianyou 李天佑 1914–1970 Lingui, Guangxi Lingui, Guangxi General, 1955-; Deputy Chief of Staff, People's Liberation Army, 1962–1970; A film, titled "Li Tianyou Jagged Siping" (李天佑血战四平), about how Li led the Communist first-ever attack and victory of a city, Battle of Siping, 1946, was made in 2009
Ding Sheng 丁盛 1913–1999 Yudu, Jiangxi Yudu, Jiangxi Major General, 1955-; Governor of Guangdong, 1972–1974
Zhang Tingfa[၂၁] 张廷发 1918–2010 Shaxian, Fujian Shaxian, Fujian Major General, 1955-; Commander-in-chief, People's Liberation Army Air Force, 1977–1985
Chen Pixian 陳丕顯
陈丕显
1916–1995 Shanghang, Fujian Shanghang, Fujian Member, Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (中国共产党中央书记处), 1982–1985; Governor of Hubei, 1978–1980
Ye Xuanping
(Yap Sen Phin)
葉選平
叶选平
1924- Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Vice-Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议), 1991–2003; Governor of Guangdong, 1985–1991
Xie Fei
(Chia Fui)
謝非
谢非
1932–1999 Lufeng, Guangdong Lufeng, Guangdong Vice-Chairman, National People's Congress (全国人民代表大会), 1998–1999
Zhang Zhen[၂၂] 张震 1914–2015 Pingjiang, Hunan Pingyuan, Guangdong General, 1988-; Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission, 1992–1997
Liao Hui 廖暉
廖晖
1942- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Vice-Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议), 2003-; Director, Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, 1997–2010
Huang Huahua
(Wong Fah Fah)
黃華華
黄华华
1946- Xingning, Guangdong Xingning, Guangdong Governor of Guangdong, 2003–2011; The stepping down of Huang as governor in 2011 marked the end of the dominance of the provincial government by the "Hakka clique" (客家帮)[၂၃]
Wu Changde 吴昌德 1952- Dayu, Jiangxi Dayu, Jiangxi General, 2013-; Deputy Director, People's Liberation Army General Political Department, 2011-

Taiwan[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Lee Teng-hui[၂၄] 李登辉 1923-2020 New Taipei, Taiwan Yongding, Fujian President of the Republic of China, 1988–2000; First popularly elected President in Chinese history
Tsai Ing-wen
(Chai Yin Vun)
蔡英文 1956- Pingtung, Taiwan President of the Republic of China, 2016–; First and only female President in Chinese history; First female without any political lineage to head a government in Asia
Li Yuan-tsu[၂၅] 李元簇 1923- Pingjiang, Hunan Pingjiang, Hunan Vice-President of the Republic of China, 1990–1996
Annette Lu[၂၆] 呂秀蓮
吕秀莲
1944- Taoyuan, Taiwan Nanjing, Fujian First and only female Vice-President of the Republic of China, 2000–2008
Hsu Fu-lin 徐傅霖 1878–1958 Heping, Guangdong Heping, Guangdong Losing candidate in the Republic of China Presidential Election to Chiang Kai-shek, 1954; Leader, China Democratic Socialist Party, 1946–1958; Hsu was the Finance Minister in the Republic of China government in China, 1946-
Wang Sheng[၂၇] 王昇
王升
1915–2006 Longan, Jiangxi Longan, Jiangxi General, 1970-; Director, General Political Warfare Department (总政治作战部), which was responsible for secret military and intelligence operations, 1975–1983; Wang was the second most powerful person in Taiwan after President Chiang Ching-kuo as he led the "Liu Shaokang Office" (刘少康办公室) which was described as the inner court of the Kuomintang party headquarters, 1979–1983 and he was rumoured to be the successor to Chiang
Yu Shyi-kun[၂၈] 游錫堃
游锡堃
1948- Yilan, Taiwan Zhao'an, Fujian Premier of the Republic of China, 2002–2005; Chairman, Democratic Progressive Party, 2006–2007
Jiang Yi-huah[၂၉] 江宜樺
江宜桦
1960- Keelung, Taiwan Premier of the Republic of China, 2013–2014
Hsu Hsin-liang
(Hee Sin Leong)
許信良
许信良
1941- Taoyuan, Taiwan Raoping, Guangdong Co-founder and Chairman, Democratic Progressive Party, 1991–1994, 1996–1998; Presidential candidate, 2000 Republic of China presidential election
Hsu Hsin-ying 徐欣瑩 1972- Hsinchu, Taiwan Founder and Chairman, Minkuotang, 2015-; Vice-Presidential candidate, 2016 Republic of China presidential election; Member of the Legislative Yuan, 2012–2015; Won by the highest majority among more than 100 legislative yuan seats in the 2012 Republic of China legislative election
Hsu Ching-chung 徐慶鐘
徐庆钟
1907–1996 Taipei, Taiwan Jiaoling, Guangdong Vice-Premier, Republic of China, 1972–1981
Chiu Chuang-huan 邱創煥
邱创焕
1925- Changhua, Taiwan Raoping, Guangdong Vice-Premier, Republic of China, 1981–1984; Governor of Taiwan Province, 1984–1990
Liu Kwo-tsai 刘阔才 1911–1993 Miaoli, Taiwan Pingyuan, Guangdong President of the Legislative Yuan, 1988–1990
Yeh Chu-lan
(Yap Kiuk Lan)
葉菊蘭
叶菊兰
1949- Miaoli, Taiwan Vice-Premier, Republic of China, 2004–2005
Chiang Pin-kung[၃၀] 江丙坤 1932- Nantou, Taiwan Pinghe, Fujian Acting Chairman, Kuomintang, 2007; Chairman, Straits Exchange Foundation (海峽交流基金会), 2008–2012
Wu Po-hsiung
(Ng Pak Hiung)
吳伯雄
吴伯雄
1939- Taoyuan, Taiwan Yongding, Fujian Chairman, Kuomintang, 2007–2009; Mayor, Taipei, 1988–1990
Chen Ta-ching 陳大慶
陈大庆
1904–1973 Chongyi, Jiangxi Chongyi, Jiangxi Minister of National Defense, 1972–1973; Governor of Taiwan Province, 1969–1972; General First-class (four-star general), 1973-; Commander-In-chief, Republic of China Army, 1967–1969
Tang Yao-ming 湯曜明
汤曜明
1940- Taichung, Taiwan Yunxiao, Fujian First Local (non-Mainlander) Taiwanese Minister of National Defense, 2002–2004; General First-class (four-star general), 1999-; Chief of General Staff, Republic of China Armed Forces, 1999–2002

Hong Kong[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Zeng Sheng[၃၁] 曾生 1910–1995 Huiyang, Guangdong Huiyang, Guangdong Legendary Commander, Dong River Column guerrilla force (东江纵队), which was made up mainly of Hakkas; Noteworthy accomplishments of the guerrilla force included the aiding of British and Commonwealth prisoners of war to escape successfully from Japanese internment camps and the rescuing of twenty American pilots who parachuted into Hong Kong when they were shot down during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, 1941–1945
David Lan 藍鴻震 1940- Hong Kong Dabu, Guangdong Secretary for Home Affairs, 1997–2000
Martin Lee 李柱銘
李柱铭
1938- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Founding Chairman, Democratic Party, 1994–2002; Leading figure of Pan-democracy camp; Lee is hailed as the Father of democracy of Hong Kong
Lau Wong-fat[၃၂] 劉皇發
刘皇发
1936- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Chairman, Heung Yee Kuk (乡议局), a powerful body representing 700 indigenous villages in New Territories, 1980–2015; Known as the "Land Emperor of the New Territories" (新界土皇帝), Lau is the political kingpin in the New Territories
Lee Wing Tat 李永達
李永达
1955- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Chairman, Democratic Party, 2004–2006
Tam Yiu Chung
(Tham Yau Tsung)
譚耀宗
谭耀宗
1949- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Chairman, Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong, the largest pro-Beijing political party in Hong Kong, 2007-

Singapore[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Elizabeth Choy 蔡楊素梅
蔡杨素梅
1910–2006 Sabah, Malaysia Guangdong War heroine; First and only woman in the Legislative Council of Singapore, 1951–1955
Lee Kuan Yew
(Lee Kong Yau)
李光耀 1923–2015 Singapore Dabu, Guangdong Founding father of modern Singapore; First Prime Minister of Singapore, 1959–1990, mother was a Peranakan
Lee Hsien Loong
(Lee Sen Lung)
李顯龍
李显龙
1952- Singapore Dabu, Guangdong Prime Minister of Singapore, 2004-; Youngest Brigadier General, Singapore Armed Forces, 1983–1984 He is a mix of Hakka, Perankan and mostly Hokkien Nyonya.
Yong Nyuk Lin 楊玉麟
杨玉麟
1918–2012 Negri Sembilan, Malaysia Meixian, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1959–1976
Hon Sui Sen
(Hon Sui Sang)
韓瑞生
韩瑞生
1916–1983 Penang, Malaysia Jiexi, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1970–1983
Howe Yoon Chong
(Hiew Yoon Chong)
侯永昌 1923–2007 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1979–1984 (Minister of Defence, 1979–1982)
Richard Hu
(Foo Su Thau)
胡賜道
胡赐道
1926- Singapore Yongding, Fujian Cabinet Minister, 1985–2001

Malaysia[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Yap Ah Loy 葉亞來
叶亚来
1837–1885 Huizhou, Guangdong Huizhou, Guangdong Founder, modern Kuala Lumpur, capital of Malaysia; Kapitan Cina, Kuala Lumpur, 1868–1885
Chung Keng Quee
(Chang Kin Gui)
鄭景貴
郑景贵
1827–1901 Zengcheng, Guangdong Zengcheng, Guangdong Founder, Taiping, Perak; Kapitan Cina, Perak, 1875–1900; Leader, Hai San Secret Society, Larut War, 1861–1874
Chin Ah Yam[၃၃] 陳亞炎
陈亚炎
-1899 Dabu, Guangdong Dabu, Guangdong Kapitan Cina, Perak, 1875–1899; Leader, Ghee Hin Secret Society, Larut War, 1861–1874
Leong Fee 梁輝
梁辉
1857–1911 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong First Chinese Member, Federal Legislative Council, 1909[၃၄]
Philip Lee Tau Sang 李道生 -1959 Highly respected and leading Chinese politician who was greatly favoured by the British colonial rulers in North Borneo (now Sabah) in the 1950s
Lau Pak Khuan
(Liew Pak Khiun)
劉伯群
刘伯群
1894–1971 Zengcheng, Guangdong Zengcheng, Guangdong First Chinese to be conferred the "Datuk Seri" title; Led the unsuccessful bid for Chinese equal citizenship-rights and official language status during the drafting of the Malaysian Constitution
Omar Ong Yoke Lin 翁毓麟 1917–2010 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Huizhou, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1955–1973; First Chinese President, Malaysian Senate, 1973–1980; Mooted the idea to form the Alliance Party (Malaysia), predecessor of Barisan Nasional, the ruling coalition party of Malaysia since independence in 1952
Wong Pow Nee 王保尼 1911–2002 Penang, Malaysia Xingning, Guangdong First Chief Minister of Penang, 1957–1969
Peter Lo Sui Yin 羅思仁
罗思仁
1923–2020 Sabah, Malaysia Longchuan, Guangdong Chief Minister of Sabah, 1965–67; Cabinet Minister, 1963–1965
James Wong Kim Min 黄金明 1922–2011 Sarawak, Malaysia Guangdong Leader of the Opposition of Malaysia, 1974; First Deputy Chief Minister, Sarawak, 1963–1966; President, Sarawak National Party, 1981–2003; Hold the record for being the longest serving Member of the Sarawak State Assembly for forty-six years, 1956–2001
Stephen Yong Kuet Tze 楊國斯
杨国斯
1921–2001 Sarawak, Malaysia Dabu, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1982–1990; Co-founder, Sarawak United Peoples' Party, Sarawak's first political party, 1959 (President, 1983–1990); Yong is best remembered for giving the Chinese in Sarawak a political voice
Lee Kim Sai
(Lee Kim Sze)
李金狮 1937-2019 Selangor, Malaysia Cabinet Minister, 1986–1995
Yong Teck Lee 楊德利
杨德利
1958- Sabah, Malaysia Longchuan, Guangdong Chief Minister of Sabah, 1996–1998; Founder and President, Sabah Progressive Party, 1994-
Peter Chin Fah Kui 陳華貴
陈华贵
1945- Sarawak, Malaysia Bao'an, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2004–2013; President, Sarawak United Peoples' Party, 2011-
Chor Chee Heung
(Chau Chee Hiung)
曹智雄 1955- Kedah, Malaysia Dabu, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2010–2013
Liow Tiong Lai
(Liau Tsung Loi)
廖中莱 1961 Malacca, Malaysia Dabu, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2008–2013, 2014-; President, Malaysian Chinese Association, 2013-
Wee Ka Siong
(Ngui Ka Seong)
魏家祥 1968- Malacca, Malaysia Lufeng, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2014-
Teresa Kok
(Kok Su Sim)
郭素沁 1964- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Huizhou, Guangdong Member of Parliament, 1999-; Won by the highest majority among more than 200 constituency seats in the 2008 and 2013 Malaysian general elections; In the 2013 election, Kok won more than 85% of the total votes cast, a record in Malaysia history
Chong Hon Nyan
(Chong Hon Nyan)
張漢源
张汉源
1924-2020 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Minister of Health (1978-1982) and Transport (1983-1986)

Indonesia[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Lo Fong Bak 羅芳伯
罗芳伯
1738–1778 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Founder and President, Hakka Republic of Lanfang in West Kalimantan, 1777–1884; The republic lasted for 107 years and had ten presidents who are all Meixian Hakkas
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
(Tjung Ban Hok)
鍾萬學
钟万学
1966- Bangka–Belitung Islands, Indonesia Meixian, Guangdong First Chinese Governor, Jakarta, capital of Indonesia, which is considered to be the third most powerful position in Indonesia, 2014-;[၃၅][၃၆] Basuki is more popularly known by his Hakka name, "Ahok" (阿学)
Christiandy Sanjaya
(Wong Hon San)
黄汉山 1964- West Kalimantan, Indonesia Jiexi, Guangdong Deputy Governor, West Kalimantan, 2008–2013; First elected Chinese Deputy Governor of Indonesia
Teddy Jusuf
(Hiung Tet Yie)
熊德怡 1966- West Java, Indonesia Meixian, Guangdong First and only Chinese to attain the rank of Brigadier General, Indonesian National Armed Forces, 1983

Thailand[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Thaksin Shinawatra[၃၇][၃၈]
(Hiew Tat Sin)
丘達新
丘达新
1949- Chiang Mai, Thailand Fengshun, Guangdong Only Prime Minister of Thailand to be re-elected in Thailand history, 2001–2006; Parties linked to Thaksin had won all the five general elections in Thailand since 2001
Yingluck Shinawatra
(Hiew Yin Lok)
丘仁樂
丘仁乐
1967- Chiang Mai, Thailand Fengshun, Guangdong First and only female Prime Minister of Thailand, 2011–2014
Supachai Panitchpakdi 1946- Bangkok, Thailand Deputy Prime Minister, 1992–1995, 1997–2001; First and only Asian Director-General, World Trade Organization, 2002–2005
Sudarat Keyuraphan 1961- Bangkok, Thailand Cabinet Minister, 2002–2006
Chaiyasit Shinawatra 1945- Chiang Mai, Thailand Fengshun, Guangdong Supreme Commander, Royal Thai Armed Forces, 2004–2005; Commander-in-Chief, Royal Thai Army, 2003–2004

Cambodia[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Sok An[၃၉]
(Soo On)
索安 1950- Takéo, Cambodia Deputy Prime Minister, Cambodia, 2004-

Myanmar[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Ne Win 奈温 1910–2002 Bago Region, Myanmar Meixian, Guangdong President of Myanmar, 1974–1981; Chairman, Union Revolutionary Council, 1962–1974; Prime Minister of Myanmar, 1958–1960, 1962–1974; Commander-in-chief (formerly known as Chief of Staff), Myanmar Armed Forces, 1949–1972; Ne Win was the paramount leader of Myanmar for three decades
San Yu[၄၀] 山友 1918–1996 Bago Region, Myanmar President of Myanmar, 1981–1988; Commander-in-chief, Myanmar Armed Forces, 1972–1974
Khin Nyunt[၄၁] 钦纽 1939- Yangon Region, Myanmar Meixian, Guangdong Prime Minister of Myanmar, 2003–2004; General, Myanmar Armed Forces, 2002–2003

Timor-Leste[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Pedro Lay
(Lai Sze Fong)
黎事芳 Timor-Leste Meixian, Guangdong First Chinese Cabinet Minister, 2007–2015
Francisco Kalbuadi Lay
(Lai Fatt Fong)
黎发芳 1954- Timor-Leste Meixian, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2012-; First Chinese to be elected to National Parliament, 2002–2005

Australia[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Penny Wong[၄၂] 黃英賢
黃英贤
1968- Sabah, Malaysia First Chinese and first Asian Cabinet Minister, 2007–2013; First female Leader of the Government in the Senate, 2013; First female Leader of the Opposition in the Senate, 2013-
Helen Sham-Ho 何沈慧霞 1943- Hong Kong Bao'an, Guangdong Member, New South Wales Legislative Council, 1988–2003; First Chinese to be elected to an Australian parliament
Peter Wong[၄၃] 黄肇强 1942- Zhaoqing, Guangdong Zijin, Guangdong Member, New South Wales Legislative Council, 1999–2007; Leading anti-white nationalist politician; Founder, Unity Party, which was formed to oppose Pauline Hanson and her white supremacy One Nation party, 1997
Alfred Huang[၄၄] 黃國鑫
黄国鑫
1938- Chengdu, Sichuan Jiaoling, Guangdong Lord Mayor, Adelaide, 2000–2003
Robert Chong[၄၅]
(Tsung Foo Hee)
鐘富喜
钟富喜
1954- Malaysia Meixian, Guangdong Mayor, Whitehorse, Victoria, 2002–2005
Henry Tsang 曾筱龍
曾筱龙
1943- Nanchang, Jiangxi Wuhua, Guangdong Deputy Lord Mayor, Sydney, 1991–1999; Member, New South Wales Legislative Council, 1999–2009

French Polynesia[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Gaston Tong Sang 1949- Bora-bora, French Polynesia Guangdong President, French Polynesia, 2006–2007, 2008–2011; Tong Sang is of mixed blood with Hakka Chinese ancestry on his paternal side

Mauritius[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Moilin Jean Ah-Chuen
(Chu Moi Lin)
朱梅麟 1909–1991 Mauritius Meixian, Guangdong First Chinese Cabinet Minister, 1967–1976; First Chinese Member, Legislative Council, 1949; Second Hakka after Sun Yat-sen to have his portrait printed on the bills of a country's currency[၄၆]
Joseph Tsang Mang Kin 曾繁興
曾繁兴
1938- Mauritius Meixian, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1995–2000; As a poet, Tsang has written a number of poems on the Hakka culture

Seychelles[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Li Huarong[၄၇]
(Lee Fah Yin)
李华荣 Seychelles Meixian, Guangdong Deputy Minister

United Kingdom[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Nat Wei, Baron Wei[၄၈][၄၉] 韋鳴恩
韦鸣恩
1977- Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom Zhuhai, Guangdong Youngest member at the age of 34 and first British-born person of Chinese origin in the House of Lords, 2011-

France[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
André Thien Ah Koon[၅၀] 曾憲建
曾宪建
1940- Reunion Island, France Meixian, Guangdong First and only Chinese elected to the French National Assembly and the first Chinese elected to a parliament in Europe, 1986–2006; Mayor, Tampon, Reunion Island, 1983–2006, 2014–2020; First Chinese Mayor of Reunion Island and France

Netherlands[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Varina Tjon-A-Ten 1952- Paramaribo, Suriname Guangdong First Chinese elected to the House of Representatives, 2003–2006; Tjon-A-Ten is of mixed blood with paternal Hakka Chinese grandfather who migrated from Guangdong to Suriname
Roy Ho Ten Soeng 何天送 1945- Paramaribo, Suriname Guangdong Mayor, Venhuizen, North Holland, 2000–2006; First immigrant Mayor of Netherlands; First Chinese Mayor of Netherlands and Europe

United States[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
David Chiu 邱信福 1970- Ohio, USA Member, California State Assembly, 2014-
Yiaway Yeh 葉亞威
叶亚威
1978- San Francisco, USA Meixian, Guangdong First Chinese Mayor of Palo Alto, California, 2012

Guyana[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Arthur Chung 鐘亞瑟
钟亚瑟
1916–2008 West Demerara, Guyana Dabu, Guangdong First President, Guyana, 1970–1980

Trinidad and Tobago[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Solomon Hochoy 何才 1905–1983 Jamaica Bao'an, Guangdong Last British Governor, 1960–1962; First non-white Governor in the whole of the British Empire, 1960; First Governor-General, 1962–1972, when Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962; First Chinese Head of State in a non-Asian country

Suriname[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Hendrick Chin A Sen 陳亞先
陈亚先
1934–1999 Marowijne District, Suriname Huiyang, Guangdong President and Prime Minister of Suriname, 1980–1982; Chin paternal side is Hakka Chinese and maternal side is mixed Creole

Jamaica[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
Rose Leon 1913–1999 Kingston, Jamaica First Chinese and first female Cabinet Minister, 1953–1960, 1972–1976; First Chinese Member, House of Representatives, 1949; First female Chairperson of a political party – Jamaica Labour Party, 1948
Horace Chang 霍勒斯.郑 1952- Westmorland, United Kingdom Cabinet Minister, 2007–2011
Delroy Chuck 德尔罗伊.卓 1950- Manchester Parish, Jamaica Dongguan Cabinet Minister, 2011–2012; First Chinese Speaker, House of Representatives, 2007–2011

Brazil[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Name
(Hakka Pronunciation)
Chinese name Birth-Death Born Ancestry Description
William Boss Wu[၅၁][၅၂] 巫佰禧 1968- São Paulo, Brazil Raoping, Guangdong First and only Chinese elected to the National Congress of Brazil, 2006-


  • စုန့်ညီအစ်မ Soong Sisters [Traditional Chinese]:宋家姐妹, [pinyin]: Sòngjiā Jiěmèi, သို့မဟုတ် စုန့်ညီအစ်မသုံးဖော် [Traditional Chinese]:宋氏三姐妹 တို့သည် ဟတ်ကာ Hakka တရုတ်ဖြစ်ပြီး သူတို့အမျိုးသားနှင့် ပက်သက်ပြီး ခေတ်သစ်တရုတ်သမိုင်း China'history ၏ ၂၀ရာစု အစောပိုင်း တွင် ဩဇာဣတ္ထိမ ကြီးမားသော ညီအစ်မဖြင့် မှတ်တမ်းဖြစ်ခဲ့သည်။
စုန့်ညီအစ်မသုံးဖော် ဓာတ်ပုံ A photograph of the three Soong sisters together.

ရုံးသုံးစကား[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

၁၉ ရာစု ကာလ၌ ဟတ်ကာစကား ကို နိင်ငံတော်စကားအဖြစ် သတ်မှတ်ပြီး တရုတ်ပြည်၏ သုံးပုံတစ်ပုံအကျယ်အဝန်းရှိသော မဟာငြိမ်းချမ်းသောကောင်းကင်နိုင်ငံတော် Taiping Heavenly Kingdom ထူထောင်ခဲ့ကြသည် ။ [၅၃] ဟတ်ကာစကားသည် ထိုင်ဝမ်၏ တရားဝင်ရုံးသုံးစကားများအနက်တစ်ခုလည်း ဖြစ်သည်။[၅၄]

တရုတ်ပြည်သူ့သမ္မတနိုင်ငံ[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တရုတ်ပြည်သူ့သမ္မတနိုင်ငံ၏ပြည်နယ်များ
  • ပြည်နယ်
  1. [[အန်းဟွေး ပြည်နယ် ]] - Anhui (安徽)
  2. ဖူကျန့်ပြည်နယ် - Fujian (福建)
  3. ကန်းစုပြည်နယ် - Gansu (甘肃)
  4. ကွမ်တုန်းပြည်နယ် - Guangdong (广东)
  5. ကွေ့ကျိုး Archived 22 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine. ပြည်နယ်]] - Guizhou (贵州)
  6. [[ဟိုင်နန် ပြည်နယ်]] - Hainan (海南)
  7. ဟိုပေ Archived 27 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine. ပြည်နယ် - Hebei (河北)
  8. ဟေးလုံကျန်း ပြည်နယ် | Heilongjiang (黑龙江)
  9. ဟောနန် ပြည်နယ် - Henan (河南)
  10. ဟူပေ ပြည်နယ် - Hubei (湖北)
  11. ဟူနန် ပြည်နယ် - Hunan (湖南)
  12. ကျန်းစူး ပြည်နယ် - Jiangsu (江苏)
  13. ကျန်းစီ ပြည်နယ် - Jiangxi (江西)
  14. ကျိလင် ပြည်နယ် - Jilin (吉林)
  15. လျောင်းနင် ပြည်နယ် - Liaoning (辽宁)
  16. ချင်းဟိုင် ပြည်နယ် - Qinghai (青海)
  17. ရှန်စီ ပြည်နယ် - Shaanxi (陕西)
  18. ဆန်းတုန်း ပြည်နယ် - Shandong (山东)
  19. ဆန်းစီ ပြည်နယ် - Shanxi (山西)
  20. စစ်ချွမ်း ပြည်နယ် - Sichuan (四川)
  21. ထိုင်ဝမ် ပြည်နယ် - Taiwan (台湾)
  22. ယူနန် ပြည်နယ် - Yunnan (云南)
  23. ကျဲ့ကျန်း ပြည်နယ် - Zhejiang (浙江)
  • ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ

Autonomous regions (自治区)

  1. ကွမ်ရှီး ကျွမ်းလူမျိုးကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ | Guangxi (广西壮族自治区)
  2. အတွင်းမွန်ဂိုလီးယား မွန်ဂိုလူမျိုးကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ | Inner Mongolia (内蒙古自治区)
  3. နိင်ရှ ဟွေးလူမျိုးကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ | Ningxia (宁夏回族自治区)
  4. ရှင်းကျန်း ဝေးဝူအာရ် လူမျိုးကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ | Xinjiang (新疆维吾尔自治区)
  5. တိဘက်လူမျိုးကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ| Tibet (西藏自治区)


  • မြူနီစီပါယ်အုပ်ချုပ်ရေး
  • Municipalities (直辖市)
  1. ပေကျင်း မြို့ | Beijing |北京市
  2. ချုံချင့် မြို့ | Chongqing (重庆市)
  3. ရှန်ဟိုင်း မြို့ | Shanghai (上海市)
  4. ထျန်းကျင်း မြို့ | Tianjin (天津市)


  • အထူးအုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ
  • Special Administrative Regions (特别行政区)
  1. ဟောင်ကောင်အထူးအုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ | Hong Kong (香港特別行政區)
  2. မကာအိုအထူးအုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ | Macau (澳門特別行政區)

တရုတ်ဗဟိုလွင်ပြင်[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Use American English|date = January 2019

Central China region.
Green = Rise of Central China Plan

'တရုတ်ဗဟိုဒေသ'Central China (ရိုးရှင်းတရုတ်: 华中; ရိုးရာတရုတ်: 華中; ပင်ရင်: Huázhōng) သည် အချက်အချာ​နေရာဖြစ်ပြီး ရော​ထွေးနေသော ယဥ်ကျေးမှုများရှိသည့်ဒေသဖြစ်သည် ။ အုပ်ချုပ်မှုနယ်မြေဒေသအရ ပါဝင်သည့် ပြည်နယ်များ provinces မှာ

  1. ဟေနန် Henan Archived 10 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine.,
  2. ဟူပေ Hubei
  3. ဟူနန် Hunan တို့ဖြစ်ပြီး
  4. ကွမ်ရှီး Jiangxi[လင့်ခ်သေ] ၏ နယ်မြေ အချို့ပါဝင်သည်။

တရုတ် တောင်ဗဟိုဒေသကို နိုင်ငံတော်အစိုးရ၏ People's Republic of Chinaအုပ်ချုပ်မှုအောက်တွင်ရှိသည်။ ၂၀၀၄ ခုနှစ်၌ စီမံကိန်း Rise of Central China Plan ကို နိုင်ငံတော်ကောင်စီ State Council of the People's Republic of China အကောင်အထည်ဖော်ရာတွင် ဗဟိုဒေသကို ဝန်းရံလျက်ရှိသော ဆန်းရှီး Shanxi, အန်ဟွေ့Anhuiစသည် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးပြီးဗဟိုဒေသလည်း ပါဝင်သတ်မှတ်ထားသည်။ .

Administrative divisions[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

GB[၅၅] ISO №[၅၆]
Province Chinese_Name Capital Population Density Area Abbreviation/Symbol

|- | style="text-align:center;" | 167,000 | style="text-align:center;" | |

| Henan Province
河南省 | | style="text-align:right;" | Zhengzhou | style="text-align:right;" | 94,023,567 | style="text-align:right;" | 563.01 | style="text-align:center;" |Hénán Shěng
HA

|- | style="text-align:center;" | HB | style="text-align:center;" | 42 | Hubei Province | 湖北省
Húběi Shěng | Wuhan | style="text-align:right;" | 57,237,740 | style="text-align:right;" | 307.89 | style="text-align:right;" | 185,900 | style="text-align:center;" |
È

|- | style="text-align:center;" | HN | style="text-align:center;" | 43 | Hunan Province

| 湖南省
Húnán Shěng | Changsha | style="text-align:right;" | 65,683,722 | style="text-align:right;" | 312.77 | style="text-align:right;" | 210,000 | style="text-align:center;" |
Xiāng

|}

အပြင်လင့်[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

https://en.m.wikipedia.beta.wmflabs.org/wiki/Soong_sisters

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Hakka_people

ကိုးကား[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ Rubinstein၊ Murray A. (2004)၊ "Rethinking Taiwanese and Chinese Identity: Melissa J. Brown's Is Taiwan Chinese?" (PDF)iir.nccu.edu.tw၊ Institute of International Relations၊ 40၊ pp. 454–458၊ ISSN 1013-2511OCLC 206031459၊ ဇူလိုင် 27, 2011 တွင် မူရင်း (PDF) အား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး
  2. Hakka culture GuangdongCulture။ Newsgd.com။
  3. ၃.၀ ၃.၁ Hakka population
  4. 客家文化探密:怀念先人 感念生活 客家人闹元宵Sina Corp
  5. LaCroix၊ Frederick E. (2009)။ The sky rained heroes: A journey from war to remembrance။ Austin: Synergy Books။ p. 56။ ISBN 978-0-9821601-3-8
  6. The Hakka : The Jews of Asia။ Edu.ocac.gov.tw။
  7. Welcome to Longyan Municipal People's Government, PRC။ English.longyan.gov.cn။ 6 April 2014 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 23 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  8. 客家文化探密:怀念先人 感念生活 客家人闹元宵
  9. "The Secret History of the Hakkas: The Chinese Revolution as a Hakka Enterprise" (December 1992). The China Quarterly 132 (132): 937–968. doi:10.1017/S0305741000045495. 
  10. Zhu De (Chu Teh)။ 10 October 2014 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  11. 大鹏赖氏家族:前辈守御领土 后人遍布全球
  12. 广东连平县颜伯焘诞辰220周年暨芳名碑揭幕仪式
  13. An Overseas Chinese martyr
  14. 浓浓乡情系中原—访孙中山先生孙女孙穗芳博士 – 我的祖父是客家人
  15. 长汀县河田镇-孙中山的祖居地,抗日战争时期,孙中山之子孙科曾赴河田祭祖坟
  16. Yao Yuping and the Xinhai Revolution (in Chinese) (8 April 2013)။ 8 November 2014 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။
  17. 中华战神薛岳—抗战中歼灭日寇最多的中国将领/第三次长沙会战的胜利之神
  18. 朱德的祖籍家世။ 2014-10-09 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။
  19. 朱德:回忆我的母亲
  20. 回忆父亲胡耀邦(十)
  21. 原空军司令员张廷发同志逝世။ 15 May 2020 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  22. 张震将军:"我既是平远人,也是平江人"
  23. Discuz! Team and Comsenz UI Team။ ֮_̳__˵။ Suizhou.org။ March 9, 2012 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 15 January 2015 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  24. 李登辉助选新招:客家人厉害 连战很客气။ 2 April 2015 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  25. 前副總統李元簇是湖南省平江縣的客家人။ 2016-03-04 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။
  26. 忘记就是背叛——福建南靖吕氏宗亲痛责吕秀莲
  27. 与王升的一面之缘။ 2016-03-04 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။
  28. 游錫堃表示,「其實我本身就是客家人,只是在宜蘭比較少被外人提及,但我記得小時候,祭祖都是遵循客家人的傳統」
  29. 江宜樺盼發揚客語 促客家新都
  30. 大溪镇江寨村:用客家礼仪迎接江丙坤။ 24 October 2014 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  31. East River Column: Hong Kong Guerrillas in the Second World War and After
  32. 刘皇发:从"耕田郎"到"新界地王
  33. Overseas Chinese in the British Empire – Chin Ah Yam
  34. Generations: The Story of Batu Gajah By Tak Ming Ho, Perak Academy Published by HO TAK MING, 2005; ISBN 983-40556-5-X, ISBN 978-983-40556-5-3; pp. 105, 113, 117, 119, 120, 132
  35. Riot Survivor Ready to Become First Chinese Jakarta Governor
  36. Basuki Ahok Purnama Sworn in as Jakarta Governor။ 4 April 2016 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  37. Former Thai leaders Yingluck, Thaksin visit ancestral village in Meizhou, Guangdong
  38. Thai PM seeks out roots in Meizhou
  39. Sok An။ 2016-03-06 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။
  40. Lee၊ Khoon Choy (မတ် 26, 2013)။ Golden Dragon and Purple Phoenix: The Chinese and Their Multi-Ethnic Descendants in Southeast AsiaISBN 9789814518499
  41. 钦纽1939年出生于缅甸孟邦首府毛淡棉。父母都是来自广东梅县的客家人။ 2016-08-20 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။
  42. Penny Wong – when grit and talent triumph over hypocrisy, racism
  43. 澳大利亚著名侨领黄肇强返紫金寻根။ 22 September 2014 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  44. 前澳大利亚阿得雷德市市长黄国鑫先生简介။ 13 October 2014 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  45. 澳洲白马市市长回梅探亲။ 4 March 2016 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  46. Mauritius Bank Notes။ 10 September 2014 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  47. 客籍华人及对非洲的贡献
  48. There is a saying, in Hakka, When everyone collects firewood, the flames rise high။ 8 August 2020 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  49. 33岁华人新贵——韦鸣恩။ 2014-10-16 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။
  50. 广东梅州杰出乡贤曾宪建再度当选法国顶磅市长
  51. 巴西首位华人国会议员威廉·巫
  52. 巴西圣保罗市华裔议员威廉巫先生一行访粤။ 4 March 2016 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 26 January 2021 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  53. 太平天国的官方语言客家话,是亚洲第一个共和国的通用语言
  54. Hakka made an official language
  55. GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China
  56. ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)