အမ်အိုင်ဂျီ-၂၉

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​
MiG-29
HuAF MIG29UB.jpg
ဟန်ဂေရီ လေတပ်မှ MiG-29 လေယာဉ်ကို လေကြောင်းပြပွဲတွင် တွေ့ရစဉ်
အမျိုးအစား ဘက်စုံသုံး တိုက်လေယာဉ်
ထုတ်လုပ်သူ မီကိုရမ်
ပထမဦးဆုံးခရီးစဉ် အောက်တိုဘာလ ၆ရက် ၁၉၇၇ ခုနှစ်
စတင်ပျံသန်းခြင်း ၁၉၈၃ ဩဂုတ်လ
အဓိကအသုံးပြုသူများ ရုရှားလေတပ်
အိန္ဒိယလေတပ်
ယူကရိန်း လေတပ်
ပိုလန်လေတပ်
တည်ဆောက်ပြီးခဲ့သည့် အရေအတွက် ၁၆၀၀ စင်းကျော်

ရုရှတို့၏ မစ် - ၂၉ (နေတိုးအခေါ် - Fulcrum) တိုက်လေယာဉ်သည် ယခင် ဆိုဗီယက် ပြည်ထောင်စုစတုတ္ထမျိုးဆက် တိုက်လေယာဉ် ဖြစ်သည်။ ၁၉၇၀ ပြည့်နှစ်များကတည်းက မီကိုယန်ဒီဇိုင်းအဖွဲ့က ဆူခွိုင်း-၂၇(Sukhoi Su-27)တိုက်လေယာဉ်နှင့်အတူ စမ်းသပ် ခဲ့သော်လည်း ၁၉၈၃ ရောက်မှ ဆိုဗီယက်လေတပ်တွင် စတင် အသုံးပြုခဲ့သည်.။ ယနေ့တိုင် ကမ္ဘာ့နိုင်ငံများစွာ၏ ဘက်စုံသုံး တိုက်လေယာဉ်အဖြစ် ရပ်တည်လျက် ရှိသည်။ အမေရိကန်တို့၏ တိုက်လေယာဉ်များဖြစ်သော မက်ဒေါနယ်ဒေါက်ကလပ်စ် အက်ဖ်-၁၅ လင်းယုန်F-16 နှင့် F/A - 18 တို့ကို ယှဉ်ပြိုင် တိုက်ခိုက်ရန် ဖန်တီးခဲ့ကြခြင်း ဖြစ်သည်။ [၁] ]

၎င်း လေယာဉ်များကို စတင်တည်ဆောက်ချိန်ကတည်းက မည်သည့် ရန်သူ့တိုက်လေယာဉ်နှင့် ယဉ်ပြိုင်တိုက်ခိုက်နိုင်ရန်အတွက် ရည်ရွယ် တည်​ဆောက်ထားပြီး တိုက်ပွဲ အခြေအနေအမျိုးမျိုးနှင့် အဆင်ပြေနိုင်ရန်နှင့် ဝေဟင်မှ မြေပြင်ပစ် ဒုံးပျံအမျိုးမျိုနှင့် တိကျသေချာသော ပဲ့ထိန်းတပ်စက်နက်များ တပ်ဆင်နိုင်ရန် တီထွင်ဖန်တီးထားသည်။ MiG-29 ကို အဓိကအခြေအနေအမျိုးမျိုးအတွက် ထုတ်လုပ်ထားသည်။ ၎င်းတို့တွင် ဘက်စုံသုံး MiG-29 အမ် နှင့် လေယာဉ်တင် သင်္ဘောများတွင် အသုံးပြုရန်အတွက် Mikoyan MiG-29K စသည်ဖြင့် မျိုးကွဲများရှိပြီး နောက်ဆုံးပေါ်နည်းပညာများဖြင့် ပြုလုပ်ထားသည် Mikoyan MiG-35 အမျိုးအစားလည်းရှိသည်။ နောက်ဆုံး ထွက်ရှိသည့် အမျိုးအစားတွင် အင်ဂျင်ပိုင်းအား အဆင့်မြှင့်တင်ထားခြင်း၊ လေယာဉ်မောင်းတံအား လက်လွှတ်ရန်မလိုပဲ ထိန်းချုပ်ခလုပ်များပါရှိသည့် မောင်းတံများ တပ်ဆင်ထားခြင်းနှင့် အီလက်ထရောနစ် စနစ်သုံး ဒီဂျစ်တယ် စက်ခန်း၊ ခေတ်သစ် ရေဒါနှင့် IRST sensors များ၊ လောင်စာဆီ ပိုမိုသယ်ဆောင်နိုင်ခြင်းနှင့် အချို့ လေယာဉ်များတွင် ဝေဟင်ဆီဖြည့်စနစ်များ ပါဝင်သည်။

ဆိုဗီယက် ပြည်ထောင်စုပြိုးကွဲပြီးနောက်ပိုင်းတွင် ခွဲထွက်သောနိုင်ငံများသည် မစ်-၂၉ ကို လက်ခံရယူခဲ့ကြပြီး တာဝန်များကို ဆက်လက်ထမ်း​ဆောင်ခဲ့ကြသည်။ ထိုလက်ခံရယူခဲ့သည့် နိုင်ငံများတွင် ရုရှားလေတပ်သည် အကြီးဆုံးဖြစ်သည်။ ရုရှားလေတပ်သည် ၎င်းတို့၏ မစ်-၂၉ အုပ်စုကို MiG-29SMT အဖြစ် အဆင့်မြှင့်တင်ခြင်းများပြုလုပ်လိုသော်လည်း တိုင်းပြည် ဘဏ္ဍာရေးအခက်အခဲများကြောင့် အကန်အသတ်ဖြစ်သာ ပြုလုပ်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ မစ်-၂၉ သည် ထိုအချိန်က နိုင်ငံခြားတိုင်းပြည်များသို့ တင်ပို့ရောင်းချရသည် လေယာဉ်အဖြစ်ကျော်ကြားရပြီး နိုင်ငံပေါင်း ၃၀ ကျော်သို့ တင်ပို့ရောင်းချခြင်း သို့မဟုတ် နောက်ပိုင်းတွင် အဆင့်မြှင့်တင်ပေးခြင်းများ ပြုလုပ်ပေးခဲ့သည်။ ထိုအထဲတွင် အိန္ဒိယနိုင်ငံသည် လေယာဉ် တင်ပို့ပေးခဲ့ရသည် အကြီးမားဆုံးသောဈေးကွက် တစ်ခုဖြစ်သည်။ ၂၀၀၆ ခုနှစ်ကတည်းက United Aircraft Corporation ၏ လက်အောက်ခံကုမ္ပဏီတစ်ခုဖြစ်လာသည့် မီခိုးရမ် ကုမ္ပဏီက မစ်-၂၉ များကို ထုတ်လုပ်ရောင်ချခဲ့သည်။

တိုးတက်မှုများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

မူလအစ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

၁၉၆၀ ခုနစ်နှောင်းပိုင်းတွင် အမေရိကန်လေတပ်သည် F-X ခေါ် ပရိုဂရမ်တစ်ခုကို စတင်ခဲ့ပြီး ယင်းအစီအစဉ်မှ မက်ဒေါ်နယ် ဒေါက်ကလက် ဖက်-၁၅ လင်းယုန်ကို ၁၉၆၉ ခုနှစ်နောက်ပိုင်း ထုတ်လုပ်နိုင်ရန် အမှာစာ ပေးပို့ခံရသည်အထိ ဦးဆောင်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ စစ်အေးတိုက်ပွဲ၏ အပြင်းထန်ဆုံး အချိန်လည်း ဖြစ်သည့်အလျောက် ဆိုဗီယက်ပြည်ထောင်စုသည် ယင်းတို့၏ လက်ရှိတိုက်လေယာဉ်များ ထက် အလွန်အဆင့်မြင့်လွန်းသည့် နည်းပညာများအသုံးပြုကာအသာစီးရနေသည့် အမေရိကန် တိုက်လေယာဉ်များအား ယှဉ်ပြိုင်နိုင်ရန်အတွက် ဆိုဗီယက်၏ တုံ့ပြန်မှုတစ်ခုလိုအပ်လာလေသည်။ ဤသို့ဖြင့် အဆင့်မြင့် တိုက်လေယာဉ်အသစ်တစ်စင်း တိုးတက်လာရေးသည် အဓိကဖြစ်လာခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၆၉ ခုနှစ်တွင် ဆိုဗီယက် ဗိုလ်ချုပ်ကြီးများသည် Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel (PFI)(အဓိပ္ပာယ်-အဆင့်မြင့် ရှေ့တန်းတိုက်လေယာဉ်) လိုအပ်ချက်ကို တင်ပြလာကြသည်။ အချက်အလက်များမှာ အလွန်ကြီးကျယ်လွန်းပြီး အဝေးဆုံးရောက်ရှိနိုင်ရေး၊ ပြေးလမ်းတိုကွင်းများတွင် ဆင်းတက်ပြုလုပ်နိုင်စွမ်း(ကြမ်းတမ်းသော ပြေးလမ်းများတွင်ပင် ဆင်းတက်နိုင်ရေးအပါအဝင်)၊ အထူးပေါ့ပါးမြန်ဆန်ခြင်း၊ အသံထက် ၂ ဆမြန်သော အလျှင်နှင့် ကြီးမားလေးလံသော စစ်လက်နက်များ တပ်ဆင်နိုင်ရေးများပါဝင်သည်။ ရုရှားလေကြောင်းပညာတက္ကသိုလ်တစ်ခုဖြစ်သော TsAGI သည် ထိုသို့သောလေယာဉ်ဖြစ်ပေါ်လာရေးအတွက် ဆူခွိုင်း ဒီဇိုင်းဗျူရိုနှင့် ပူးပေါင်းဆောင်ရွက်ခဲ့သည်။

မည်သို့ပင် ဖြစ်စေ၊​ ၁၉၇၁ ခုနှစ်တွင် ဆိုဗီယက်လေ့လာသူများ ဆုံးဖြတ်ချက် ချလိုက်သည်ကား မတူထူးခြားသည် တိုက်လေယာဉ်များ လိုအပ်သည် ဆိုသည်သာဖြစ်သည်။ PFI (အဆင့်မြင့် ရှေ့တန်းတိုက်လေယာဉ်) အစီအစဉ်အား LPFI(အဆင့်မြင့် ဗျူဟာမြောက် အပေါ့စားတိုက်လေယာဉ်) စီမံကိန်းက ထောက်ခံပေးပြီးနောက် ဆိုဗီယက် တိုက်ခိုက်ရေးအဖြွ့သည် အဆင့်မြင့် ရှေ့တန်းတိုက်လေယာဉ် ၃၃ % နှင့် (အဆင့်မြင့် ဗျူဟာမြောက် အပေါ့စားတိုက်လေယာဉ် ၆၇ % ပါဝင်သည် အစီအစဉ်ကို အတည်ပြုခဲ့သည်။ PFIနှင့် LPFIတို့သည် အမေရိကန်လေတပ်၏ အပေါ့စားတိုက်ခိုက်ရေးလေယာဉ် တီထွင်ဖန်တီးရေ အစီစဉ်များနှင့် General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and Northrop YF-17 အစီအစဉ်တို့အား န်ှိုင်းယှဉ်ခဲ့ကြသည်။ PFI PFI (အဆင့်မြင့် ရှေ့တန်းတိုက်လေယာဉ်) ဖြစ်မြောက်ရေးအတွက် ဆူခွိုင်း ကုပ္မဏီအား တာဝန်ယူစေပြီး ရလာဒ်အနေဖြင့် ဆူခွိုင်း Su-27 အားတီတွင်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ LPFI (အဆင့်မြင့် ဗျူဟာမြောက် အပေါ့စားတိုက်လေယာဉ်) ဖြစ်မြောက်ရေးအတွက် မီခိုရမ် ကုပ္မဏီအား တာဝန်ယူစေခဲ့သည်။ ထို့နောက် Mikoyan Product 9 အား အသေးစိတ် ဒီဇိုင်း ရေးဆွဲစေပြီး မစ်-29အေ(Mig-29A) ကို ၁၉၇၄ ခုနှစ်တွင် စတင်ပြုလုပ်စေပြီး ပထမဆုံးသော အစမ်းပျံသန်းမှုကို ၁၉၇၇ ခုနှစ် အောက်တိုဘာလ ၆ ရက်နေ့တွင် စတင်ခဲ့သည်။ ထိုနှစ် နိုဝင်ဘာလအတွင်းတွင် အမေရိကန်ထောက်လှမ်းရေး ဂြိုလ်တိုမှတစ်ဆင့် ထုတ်လုပ်အရေးအကြိုလေယာဉ်အား အစက်ပြထောက်လှမ်းတွေ့ရှိခဲ့သည်။ ရမ်စကိုရီမြို့ (Ramenskoye) ၏ Zhukovsky လေယာဉ်အစမ်းလေ့ကျင်ရေးဗဟိုဌာနတွင် ရှာဖွေ ထောက်လှမ်းရမိသည့် ထိုအရာအား ရမ်-အယ် အဖြစ်အမည်ပေးခဲ့သည်။

၁၉၈၉၊ အက်ဘော့စ်ဖို့ဒ်လေကြောင်းပြပွဲတွင် ရပ်တန့်ထားသော မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်အားတွေ့ရပုံMiG-29

Mig-29 သည် ၁၉၈၀ ခုနှစ်အလယ်ပိုင်းအတွင်း ဆိုဗီယက်လေတပ်၏ ရှေ့တန်း တာဝန်ထမ်းဆောင်ရန်အတွက်ရွေးချယ်ခံရခြင်းဖြင့် TPFI နှင့် LPFI နှစ်ခုကြားရှိ အလုပ်တာဝန်ကို ခွဲဝေစေသည်။ အကွာအဝေးပိုမိုသွားနိုင်ပြီး ကြီးမားသည့် Su-27 များအား နေတိုးတို့၏ ဈေးကြီးလှသော ပစ်မှတ်များအား သိမ်းကြုံးဖြိုလဲရန် အလွန်လေးနက်၊ ဆန်းကျယ်ပြီး အန္တရာယ်များလှသော ဝေဟင်စီးချင်းထိုး တိုက်ခိုက်ရေးလုပ်ငန်းများတွင် အသုံးပြုနေချိန် သေးငယ်သော Mig-29 များကို ရှေ့တန်း​လေကြောင်းအရေးသာမှု အတွက် Mig-23 နေရာများတွင် တိုက်ရိုက်အစားထိုးခဲ့သည်။ဆိုဗီယက် စစ်ဗျူဟာရေးဆွဲသူများသည် ထိခိုက်ပျက်စီးမှုများ သို့မဟုတ် လျှင်မြန်ပြီး အဆင့်မြင့်သံချပ်ကာယာဉ်များ နှင့် ထိတွေ့ရာတွင်လည်းကောင်း၊ ပျက်စီးနေသော သို့မဟုတ် မပြင်ဆင်ထားသော လေယာဉ်ကွင်းများတွင် ဆင်းတက်နိုင်ရန် ကြမ်းတမ်းသည့်မြေပြင်များတွင် ဆင်းသက်နိုင်သော ဂီယာများနှင့် အကာအကွယ်ပါဝင်သော လေဝင်ပေါက်များကိုထည့်သွင်းတည်ဆောက်ထားသည်။

ဈေးကွက်ဝင်လာခြင်းနှင့် အဆင့်မြှင့်တင်မှုများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

MiG-29UB အမောင်းသင်လေယာဉ်

MiG-29A အကြိုထုတ်လုပ်ရေးအတွက် ဤရွေးချယ်ရေးကို အကျိုးကြောင်းသင့် လက်ခံရရှိပြီးဖြစ်သော်လည်း ထိုအချိန်က အနောက်နိုင်ငံများ မသိနိုင်သေးသောကြောင့် နေတိုးအစီရင်ခံစာများအရ ထိုတိုက်လေယာဉ်အသစ်အား "Fulcrum-A" ဟု အမည်သတ်မှတ်ခဲ့သည်။ ဆိုဗီယက် ပြည်ထောင်စုသည် ထိုလေယာဉ်အများစု၏ တရားဝင်အမည်ကို ထုတ်ပြန်ကြေညာခြင်းမရှိဘဲ အမည်ပြောင်များကိုသာ ပေးခဲ့သည်။ သို့သော် ထူးခြားသည်မှာ ဆိုဗီယက်ပိုင်းလော့အချို့သည် Mig-29 ၏ လေယာဉ်၏ ရည်ရွယ်ထားသည့်အချက်များဖြင့် ဖော်ြပထားသည့် နေတိုးအမည် "Fulcrum" ကို ရှိဖွေတွေ့ရှိသွားခဲ့ပြီး ထိုအမည်ကိုပင် ဆိုဗီယက်တပ်အတွင်း၌ တစ်ခါတစ်ရံအသံုးပြုကြသည်။

ပျံသန်းရေးကိရိယာ အနည်းငယ် နှင့် နျူကလီးယားလက်နက်များ တင်ဆောင်နိုင်ခြင်းမရှိသည့် MiG-29B 9-12A နှင့် MiG-29B 9-12B အဖြစ် အဆင့်​လျှော့ထားသည့် မစ်-၂၉များကို ကျယ်ပြန့်စွာ ထုတ်လုပ်ခဲ့ပြီး ဝါဆော စာချုပ်ဝင်နိုင်ငံများနှင့် စာချုပ်တွင် မပါဝင်သည့် နိုင်ငံများသို့ ခွဲခြား၍ ရောင်းချခဲ့သည်။ စုစုပေါင်းအနေဖြင့် လေယာဉ်အစင်းရေ ၈၄၀ ခန့် ထုတ်လုပ်ခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၈၀ ခုနှစ်တွင် မီခိုရမ်ကုပ္မဏီသည် တာဝေးသို့ ပိုမိုရောက်ရှိနိုင်သည့် R-27E and R-77 ဝေဟင်မှ ဝေဟင်ပစ် ဒုံးပျံများ တင်ဆောင်နိုင်သည့် Mig-29S ကို အဆင့််မြှင့်တင် ထုတ်လုပ်ခဲ့သည်။ထို့ပြင်လေယာဉ်ကိုယ်ထည်အပေါ်ပိုင်းတွင် အခုံးပြုလုပ်ပြီး တန်ပြန်နှောက်ယှက်ရေးကိရိယာများနှင့် ဆီအပိုများ ဝင်ဆံ့နိုင်ရန်ပြုလုပ်ခဲ့သည်။ လေယာဉ်ကိုယ်ထည်အား တောင့်တင်းခိုင်မာစေခဲ့ပြီး လက်နက်တင်ဆောင်နိုင်မှုကို ပေါင် ၄၀၀၀မှ ပေါင် ၈၀၀၀ အထိ တိုးမြင့်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ ထိုအင်္ဂါရပ်များကို လေယာဉ်အသစ်များတွင် ထည့်သွင်းတည်ဆောက်ခဲ့ပြီး Mig-29S အဟောင်းများကိုလည်း အဆင့်မြှင့်တင်ခဲ့သည်။ .[၂][၃] Refined versions of the MiG-29 with improved avionics were fielded by the Soviet Union, but Mikoyan’s multirole variants, including a carrier-based version designated MiG-29K, were never produced in large numbers. In the post-Soviet era, MiG-29 development was influenced by the Mikoyan bureau's apparent lesser political clout than rival Sukhoi. Some more advanced versions are still being pursued for export, and updates of existing Russian aircraft are likely. New fighter versions called MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29SMT have been developed. Furthermore, development of the MiG-29K carrier version has been resumed for the Indian Navy's INS Vikramaditya, and Russian Navy's Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carrier.

ဒီဇိုင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Overview[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ဆွစ်လေကြောင်းဆပ်ကပ်အသင်း( Swifts aerobatic team)၏ MiG-29UB တိုက်လေယာဉ်

Sharing its origins in the original PFI requirements issued by TsAGI, the MiG-29 has broad aerodynamic similarities to the Sukhoi Su-27, however, there are some notable differences. The MiG-29 has a mid-mounted swept wing with blended leading-edge root extensions (LERXs) swept at around 40°; there are swept tailplanes and two vertical fins, mounted on booms outboard of the engines. Automatic slats are mounted on the leading edges of the wings; they are four-segment on early models and five-segment on some later variants. On the trailing edge, there are maneuvering flaps and wingtip ailerons. At the time of its deployment, it was one of the first jet fighters in service capable of executing the Pugachev Cobra maneuver.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

The MiG-29 has hydraulic controls and a SAU-451 three-axis autopilot but, unlike the Su-27, no fly-by-wire control system. Nonetheless, it is very agile, with excellent instantaneous and sustained turn performance, high-alpha capability, and a general resistance to spins. The airframe consists primarily of aluminium with some composite materials, and is stressed for up to 9-g (88 m/s²) maneuvers. The controls have "soft" limiters to prevent the pilot from exceeding g and alpha limits, the limiters can be disabled manually.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

Powerplant and range[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]


RD-33 on display at the Air Force Museum of the Bundeswehr

The MiG-29 has two widely spaced Klimov RD-33 turbofan engines, each rated at 50.0 kN (11,240 lbf) dry and 81.3 kN (18,277 lbf) in afterburner. The space between the engines generates lift, thereby reducing effective wing loading, to improve maneuverability. The engines are fed through wedge-type intakes fitted under the leading-edge extensions (LERXs), which have variable ramps to allow high-Mach speeds. As an adaptation to rough-field operations, the main air inlet can be closed completely and alter using the auxiliary air inlet on the upper fuselage for takeoff, landing and low-altitude flying, preventing ingestion of ground debris. Thereby the engines receive air through louvers on the LERXs which open automatically when intakes are closed. However the latest variant of the family, the MiG-35, eliminated these dorsal louvers, and adopted the mesh screens design in the main intakes, similar to those fitted to the Su-27.[၄]

The MiG-29 has a ferry range of 1,500 km without external fuel tanks, and 2,100 km with one external tank.[၅] The internal fuel capacity of the original MiG-29B is 4,365 litres distributed between six internal fuel tanks, four in the fuselage and one in each wing. For longer flights, this can be supplemented by a 1,500-litre (330 Imp gal, 395 US gal) centreline drop tank and, on later production batches, two 1,150-litre (253 Imp gal, 300 US gal) underwing drop tanks. In addition, a small number have been fitted with port-side inflight refueling probes, allowing much longer flight times by using a probe-and-drogue system. Some MiG-29B airframes have been upgraded to the "Fatback" configuration (MiG-29 9–13), which adds a dorsal-mounted internal fuel tank. Advanced variants, such as the MiG-35, can be fitted with a conformal fuel tank on the dorsal spine, although none of them have yet entered service.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

ယာဉ်မောင်းခန်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

မစ်-၂၉ ယာဉ်မောင်းခန်း၊ ၁၉၉၅

The cockpit features a conventional centre stick and left hand throttle controls. The pilot sits in a Zvezda K-36DM zero-zero ejection seat which has had impressive performance in emergency escapes.

The cockpit has conventional dials, with a head-up display (HUD) and a Shchel-3UM helmet mounted display, but no HOTAS ("hands-on-throttle-and-stick") capability. Emphasis seems to have been placed on making the cockpit similar to the earlier MiG-23 and other Soviet aircraft for ease of conversion, rather than on ergonomics. Nonetheless, the MiG-29 does have substantially better visibility than most previous Russian jet fighters, thanks to a high-mounted bubble canopy. Upgraded models introduce "glass cockpits" with modern liquid-crystal (LCD) multi-function displays (MFDs) and true HOTAS.

အာရုံခံကိရိယာများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The baseline MiG-29B has a Phazotron RLPK-29 (Radiolokatsyonnui Pritselnui Kompleks) radar fire control system (FCS) which includes the N019 (Sapfir 29; NATO: 'Slot Back') look-down/shoot-down coherent pulse-Doppler radar and the Ts100.02-02 digital computer. Tracking range against a fighter-sized target was only about 70 km (38 nmi) in the frontal aspect and 35 km (19 nmi) in the rear aspect. Range against bomber-sized targets was roughly double. Ten targets could be displayed in search mode, but the radar had to lock onto a single target for semi-active homing (SARH). The MiG-29 was not able to reliably utilize the new Vympel R-27R (NATO: AA-10 "Alamo") long-range SARH missile at its maximum ranges.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

MiG-29 nose showing radome and IRST

These performance deficiencies stemmed largely from the fact the N019 radar was not, in fact, a new design. Instead, the system was a further development of the architecture already used in Phazotron's Sapfir-23ML system, then in use on the MiG-23ML. During the initial MiG-29 design specification period in the mid-1970s, Phazotron NIIR was tasked with producing a modern radar for the MiG-29. To speed development, Phazotron based its new design on the work undertaken by NPO Istok on the experimental "Soyuz" radar program. Accordingly, the N019 was originally intended to have a flat planar array antenna and full digital signal processing, giving a detection and tracking range of at least 100 km against a fighter-sized target. Given the state of Soviet avionics technology at the time, it was an ambitious goal. Testing and prototypes soon revealed this could not be attained in the required timeframe, at least not in a radar that would fit in the MiG-29's nose. Rather than design a completely new, albeit more modest radar, Phazotron reverted to a version of the twisted-polarization Cassegrain antenna used successfully on the Sapfir-23ML to save time and cost. This system used the same analog signal processors as their earlier designs, coupled with a NII Argon-designed Ts100 digital computer. While this decision provided a working radar system for the new fighter, it inherited all of the weak points of the earlier design. This reliance on 1960s-era technology continued to plague the MiG-29's ability to detect and track airborne targets at ranges available with the R-27 and R-77 missiles, although new designs like the digital N010 Zhuk-M address the serious signal processing shortcomings inherent in the analog design. Most MiG-29 continue to use the analog N019 or N019M radar, although VVS has indicated its desire to upgrade all existing MiG-29s to a fully digital system.

MiG-29UB on display, showing gunport

The N019 was further compromised by Phazotron designer Adolf Tolkachev’s betrayal of the radar to the CIA, for which he was executed in 1986. In response to all of these problems, the Soviets hastily developed a modified N019M Topaz radar for the upgraded MiG-29S aircraft. However, VVS was reportedly still not satisfied with the performance of the system and demanded another upgrade. The latest upgraded aircraft offered the N010 Zhuk-M, which has a planar array antenna rather than a dish, improving range, and a much superior processing ability, with multiple-target engagement capability and compatibility with the Vympel R-77 (or RVV-AE) (NATO: AA-12 'Adder'). A useful feature the MiG-29 shares with the Su-27 is the S-31E2 KOLS, a combined laser rangefinder and IRST in an "eyeball" mount forward of the cockpit canopy. This can be slaved to the radar or used independently, and provides exceptional gun-laying accuracy.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

လက်နက်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

File:Mig-29ukraine arms.JPG
ယူကရိန်းလေတပ်၏ MiG-29 တိုက်လေယာဉ်အား လက်နက်များစုပုံထားလျက်တွေ့ရပုံ

Armament for the MiG-29 includes a single GSh-30-1 30 mm cannon in the port wing root. This originally had a 150-round magazine, which was reduced to 100 rounds in later variants. Original production MiG-29B aircraft cannot fire the cannon when carrying a centerline fuel tank as it blocks the shell ejection port. This issue was corrected in the MiG-29S and later versions. Three pylons are provided under each wing (four in some variants), for a total of six (or eight). The inboard pylons can carry either a 1,150 liter (300 US gal) fuel tank, one Vympel R-27 (AA-10 "Alamo") medium-range air-to-air missile, or unguided bombs or rockets. Some Soviet aircraft could carry a single nuclear bomb on the port inboard station. The outer pylons usually carry R-73 (AA-11 "Archer") dogfight missiles, although some users still retain the older R-60 (AA-8 "Aphid"). A single 1,500-litre (400 US gal) tank can be fitted to the centerline, between the engines, for ferry flights, but this position is not used for combat stores. The original MiG-29B can carry general-purpose bombs and unguided rocket pods, but not precision-guided munitions. Upgraded models have provision for laser-guided and electro-optical bombs, as well as air-to-surface missiles.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

Operational history[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The Soviet Union exported MiG-29s to several countries. Because 4th-generation fighter jets require the pilots to have extensive training, air-defense infrastructure, and constant maintenance and upgrades, MiG-29s have had mixed operational history with different air forces.[၆]

ဆိုဗီယက်ပြည်ထောင်စုနှင့်ရုရှား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

၁၉၈၈၊ ဖားဘိုရိုလေကြောင်းပြပွဲ (Farnborough Airshow)တွင်MiG-29UB အားတွေ့ရပုံ

The MiG-29 was first publicly seen in the West when the Soviet Union displayed the aircraft in Finland in July 1986. Two MiG-29s were also displayed at the Farnborough Airshow in Britain in September 1988. The following year, the aircraft conducted flying displays at the 1989 Paris Air Show where it was involved in a non-fatal crash during the first weekend of the show.[၇] The Paris Air Show display was only the second display of Soviet fighters at an international air show since the 1930s. Western observers were impressed by its apparent capability and exceptional agility. Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, most of the MiG-29s entered service with the newly formed Russian Air Force.

In 1993, two MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force collided in mid-air and crashed away from the public at the 1993 Royal International Air Tattoo (UK). No one was hurt on the ground.[၈] The two pilots ejected and landed safely.[၉] Investigators later determined that a pilot error was the cause, after one pilot did a reverse loop and disappeared into the clouds, the other one lost sight of his wingman and aborted the routine.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

On 20 April 2008, Georgian officials claimed a Russian MiG-29 shot down a Georgian Hermes 450 unmanned aerial vehicle and provided video footage from the ill-fated drone showing an apparent MiG-29 launching an air-to-air missile at it. Russia denies that the aircraft was theirs and says they did not have any pilots in the air that day. Abkhazia’s administration claimed its own forces shot down the drone with an L-39 aircraft "because it was violating Abkhaz airspace and breaching ceasefire agreements."[၁၀] UN investigation concluded that the video was authentic and that the drone was shot down by a Russian MiG-29 or Su-27 using a R-73 heat seeking missile.[၁၁]

The Russian Air Force grounded all its MiG-29s following a crash in Siberia on 17 October 2008.[၁၂] Following a second crash with an MiG-29 in east Siberia in December 2008,[၁၃][၁၄] Russian officials admitted that most MiG-29 fighters in the Russian Air Force were incapable of performing combat duties due to poor maintenance. The age of the aircraft was also an important factor as about 70% of the MiGs were considered to be too old to take to the skies.[၁၅] The Russian MiG-29s have not received updates since the collapse of the Soviet Union. This is because the Russian Air Force chose to upgrade the Su-27 and MiG-31 instead. On 4 February 2009, the Russian Air Force resumed flights with the MiG-29.[၁၆] However, in March 2009, 91 MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force required repair after inspections due to corrosion; approximately 100 MiGs were cleared to continue flying at the time.[၁၇][၁၈] The Russian Air Force started an update of its early MiG-29s to the more current MiG-29SMT standard.[၁၉]

အိန္ဒိယ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

အိန္ဒိယလေတပ်၏ MiG-29 တိုက်လေယာဉ်ပုံ

အိန္ဒိယ သည် ပထမဆုံး မစ်-၂၉ မှာယူသည့် ဖောက်သည်ဖြစ်သည်။ အိန္ဒိယလေတပ် (IAF) သည် ၁၉၈၀၊ လေယာဉ်စတင်ထုတ်လုပ်ချိန်မှစပြီး မစ်-၂၉ အစင်းရေ ၅၀ ကို မှာယူခဲ့သည်။ Since its induction into the IAF in 1985, the aircraft has undergone a series of modifications with the addition of new avionics, sub-systems, turbofan engines and radars.[၂၀] The upgraded Indian version is known as Baaz (Hindi for Hawk) and forms a crucial component of the second-line offensive aircraft-fleet of the IAF after the Sukhoi Su-30MKI.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

Indian MiG-29s were used extensively during the 1999 Kargil War in Kashmir by the Indian Air Force to provide fighter escort for Mirage 2000s, which were attacking targets with laser-guided bombs. According to Indian sources, two MiG-29s from the IAF's No. 47 squadron (Black Archers) gained missile lock on two F-16s of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) which were patrolling close to the border to prevent any incursions by Indian aircraft, but did not engage them because no official declaration of war had been issued. The Indian MiG-29s were armed with beyond-visual-range air-to-air missiles whereas the Pakistani F-16s were not.[၂၁]

The MiG-29’s good operational record prompted India to sign a deal with Russia in 2005—2006 to upgrade all of its MiG-29s for US$888 million. Under the deal, the Indian MiGs were modified to be capable of deploying the R-77RVV-AE (AA-12 'Adder') air-to-air missile. The missiles had been successfully tested in October 1998 and were integrated into IAF's MiG-29s. IAF has also awarded the MiG Corporation another US$900 million contract to upgrade all of its 69 operational MiG-29s. These upgrades will include a new avionics fit, with the N-109 radar being replaced by a Phazatron Zhuk-M radar. The aircraft is also being equipped to enhance beyond-visual-range combat ability and for air-to-air refuelling to increase endurance.[၂၂] In 2007, Russia also gave India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) a licence to manufacture 120 RD-33 series 3 turbofan engines for the upgrade.[၂၃] The upgrade will also include a new weapon control system, cockpit ergonomics, air-to-air missiles, high-accuracy air-to-ground missiles and "smart" aerial bombs. The first six MiG-29s will be upgraded in Russia while the remaining 63 MiGs will be upgraded at the HAL facility in India. India also awarded a multi-million dollar contract to Israel Aircraft Industries to provide avionics and subsystems for the upgrade.[၂၄]

In March 2009, the Indian Air Force expressed concern after 90 MiG-29s were grounded in Russia.[၂၅] After carrying out an extensive inspection, the IAF cleared all MiG-29s in its fleet in March 2009.[၂၆] In a disclosure in Parliament, Defence Minister A. K. Antony said the MiG-29 is structurally flawed in that it has a tendency to develop cracks due to corrosion in the tail fin. Russia has shared this finding with India, which emerged after the crash of a Russian Air Force MiG-29 in December 2008. "A repair scheme and preventive measures are in place and IAF has not encountered major problems concerning the issue," Antony said.[၂၇] Despite concerns of Russia's grounding, India sent the first six of its 78 MiG-29s to Russia for upgrades in 2008. The upgrade program will fit the MiGs with a phased array radar (PESA) and in-flight re-fuelling capability.[၆]

၂၀၁၀၊ ဇန္နဝါရီတွင် အိန္ဒိယနှင့်ရုရှားတို့သည် အိန္ဒိယလေတပ်အတွက် အမေရိကန်ဒေါ်လာ ၁.၂တန်ဖိုးရှိ မစ်-၂၉ တိုက်လေယာဉ် ၂၉ စင်း အရောင်းအဝယ်စာချုပ်ချုပ်ဆိုခဲ့ကြသည်။ အိန္ဒိယရေတပ်တွင် မစ်-၂၉ တိုက်လေယာဉ်စုစုပေါင်း ၄၀ စီးရှိလာမည်ဖြစ်သည်။ [၂၈] The MiG-29K entered service with the Indian Navy on 19 February 2010.[၂၉]

အိန္ဒိယနိုင်ငံ၏ မစ်-၂၉ များကို MiG-29UPG အဖြစ်အဆင့်မြှင့်တင်မည်ဖြစ်သည်။ This version is similar to the SMT variant but differs by having a foreign-made avionics suite.[၃၀] The upgrade to latest MiG-29UPG standard is in process, which will include latest avionics, Zhuk-ME Radar, engine, weapon control systems, enhancing multirole capabilities by many-fold.[၃၁][၃၂] As of 2012, Indian UPG version is the most advanced MiG-29 variant.[၃၃] The Director-General of MiG, Sergei Korotkov said, "The most advanced is the MiG-29UPG, implemented in India in collaboration with local industry".[၃၃] RAC MiG has upgraded the first six MiG-29UPG fighters for India by October 2012.[၃၄] The first three aircraft were delivered in December 2012, over two years behind schedule.[၃၅]

ယူဂိုစလားဗီးယား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ယူဂိုစလားဗီးယားသည် မစ်-၂၉ စတင်အသုံးပြုသော ဆိုဗီယက်ပြင်ပရှိ ဥရောပနိုင်ငံဖြစ်သည်။ ယူဂိုစလားဗီးယားနိုင်ငံသည် ၁၉၈၇ တွင် ဆိုဗီယက်ပြည်ထောင်စုမှ MiG-29B တိုက်လေယာဉ် ၁၄ စီးနှင့် MiG-29UBနှစ်စီးကိုလက်ခံရရှိခဲ့သည်။ ဆားဘီးယားနိုင်ငံ၊ ဘယ်လ်ဂရိတ်မြို့မြောက်ဖက်ရှိဘာတန်နီကာလေတပ်စခန်းရှိ အမှတ် ၁၂၇ လေတပ်တွင် MiG-29 များစတင်တာဝန်ထမ်းဆောင်ခဲ့သည်။ [၃၆]

ယူဂိုစလဗ် မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်များသည် ယခင်က တိုက်ပွဲဝင်မှုအနည်းငယ်သာရှိခဲ့သော်လည်း ယူဂိုစလားဗီးယားပြည်တွင်းစစ်ဖြစ်ပွားလာချိန်တွင် မြေပြင်ပစ်မှတ်များအတွက် အဓိကတိုက်လေယာဉ်အဖြစ်အသုံးပြုခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၉၁တွင် ခရိုအေးရှားနိုင်ငံ၊ အိုစီဂျက်မြို့အနီး စီဖင်လေယာဉ်ကွင်းတွင် ခရိုအေးရှားတို့အသုံးပြုသော Antonov An-2 လေယာဉ်အများအပြားသည် မြေပြင်ပေါ်မှာပင် မစ်-၂၉ တိုက်လေယာဉ်များ၏ဖျက်ဆီးခြင်းကိုခံလိုက်ရသည်။ မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်များမှာမူ တစ်စီးမှဆုံးရှုံးခြင်းမရှိခဲ့ပေ။ [၃၇] At least two MiG-29 carried out an air strike on Banski dvori, the official residence of the Croatian Government, on 7 October 1991.[၃၈]

မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်များသည် ဖယ်ဒရယ်ယူဂိုစလားဗီးယားသမ္မတနိုင်ငံခေတ်အထိဆက်လက်တာဝန်ထမ်းဆောင်ခဲ့ကြသည်။ တိုင်းပြည်အပေါ် ကုလသမဂ္ဂ၏လက်နက်ပိတ်ဆို့မှုကြောင့် မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်များ၏အခြေအနေပိုဆိုးလာသည်။ ၁၉၉၉တွင် မဟာမိတ်တပ်များစစ်ဆင်ရေးမစတင်မီ ယူဂိုစလဗ် မစ်-၂၉ များသည် ၁၂ နှစ်သက်တမ်းရှိပြီး အပိုပစ္စည်းများပြတ်တောက်ပြီး ထိန်းသိမ်းပြုပြင်မှုမပြုလုပ်နိုင်ပေ။ ၁၉၉၉ မတ်လတွင် ယူဂိုစလဗ်လေတပ်တွင် မစ်-၂၉ တိုက်လေယာဉ် ၁၁ စီးရှိသည်။[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

A total of six MiG-29s were shot down during the Kosovo War, of which three were shot down by USAF F-15s, one by a USAF F-16, and one by a Dutch F-16.[၃၉] One aircraft, according to pilot, was hit by friendly fire from the ground.[၄၀] Another four were destroyed on the ground.[၄၁] Some Russian sources claim that a MiG-29 shot down an F-16 on 26 March 1999,[၄၂] but this kill is disputed, as the F-16C in question was said to have crashed in the US that same day.[၄၃]

Most historians attribute the downing of a F-117 as being shot down by SAM commander Zoltan Dani.[၄၄] Russian sources have claimed a F-117 was shot down by a MiG-29[၄၅][၄၆][၄၇][၄၈][၄၉][၅၀] piloted by Lt. Gvozden Djukic, which was the nom de guerre of Zoltan Dani.[၅၁][၅၂]

ဆားဘီးယားနှင့်မွန်တီနီဂရိုးလေတပ်သည် ကျန်ရှိသော မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်ငါးစီးကို စစ်ပြီးခေတ်တွင် အနည်းငယ်ဆက်လက်ပျံသန်းခဲ့သည်။ ၂၀၀၄ နွေဦးတွင် ထိန်းသိမ်းပြုပြင်နိုင်ခြင်းမရှိတော့သောကြောင့် မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်များအသုံးပြုမှုရပ်ဆိုင်းခဲ့သည်။ [၃၇] ၂၀၀၇ တွင် မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်ငါးစီးလုံးအား ရုရှားသို့ပို့ပြီးပြုပြင်အဆင့်မြှင့်ခဲ့သည်။ ၂၀၀၈ တွင် မစ်-၂၉ တစ်စီးပျက်ကျပြီး လေယာဉ်မှူးနှင့်မြေပြင်ပေါ်ရှိစစ်သားတစ်ဦးသေဆုံးခဲ့သည်။[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

ဂျာမနီ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The ဂျာမန်ဒီမိုကရက်တစ်သမ္မတနိုင်ငံ (အရှေ့ဂျာမနီဟုလည်းလူသိများသည်) သညည် မစ်--၂၉ လေယာဉ် ၂၄ စီး ဝယ်ယူခဲ့သည်။ bought 24 MiG-29s (20 MiG-29As, four MiG-29UBs), which entered service in 1988–1989. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and reunification of Germany in October 1990, the MiG-29s and other aircraft of the East German Luftstreitkräfte der NVA were integrated into the West German Air Force. After upgrades by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (now EADS) for NATO compatibility, they were designated MiG-29G and MiG-29GT. In March 1991, one of the MiG-29s in German service was transferred to the USAF for evaluation, along with several Su-22s and MiG-23s[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်].

A German Air Force MiG-29

The Federation of American Scientists claims the MiG-29 is equal or better than the F-15C in some areas such as short aerial engagements because of the Helmet Mounted Weapons Sight (HMS) and better maneuverability at slow speeds.[၅၃] This was demonstrated when MiG-29s of the German Air Force participated in joint DACT exercises with US fighters.[၅၄][၅၅] The HMS was a great help, allowing the Germans to achieve a lock on any target the pilot could see within the missile field of view, including those almost 45 degrees off boresight.[၅၆] In contrast, the American aircraft were only able to lock onto targets in a narrow window directly in front of the aircraft’s nose. It was not until late 2003 that the USAF and US Navy achieved Initial Operational Capability of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System.

Since 1993 the German MiGs were stationed with 1./JG73 "Steinhoff" in Laage near Rostock. During the service in the German Air Force one MiG-29 ("29+09") was destroyed during an accident on 25 June 1996 due to pilot error. By 2003, German Air Force pilots had flown over 30,000 hours in the MiG-29. In September 2003, 22 of the 23 remaining machines were sold to the Polish Air Force for the symbolic price of €1 per item.[၅၇] The last aircraft were transferred in August 2004.[၅၈] The 23rd MiG-29 ("29+03") was put on display at Laage.[၅၉]

Poland[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ပိုလန်လေတပ်၏ မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်

The first 12 MiG-29 (nine MiG-29As, three MiG-29UB) were delivered to Poland in 1989–1990. The aircraft were based at Mińsk Mazowiecki and used by the 1st Fighter Aviation Regiment, which was reorganized in 2001 as 1 Eskadra Lotnictwa Taktycznego (1. elt), or 1st Tactical Squadron (TS). In 1995-1996, 10 used examples were acquired from the Czech Republic (nine MiG-29As, one MiG-29UB). After the retirement of its MiG-23s in 1999, and MiG-21s in 2004, Poland was left for a time with only these 22 MiG-29s in the interceptor role.

In 2004 Poland received 22 MiG-29s from the German Air Force. A total of 14 of these were overhauled and taken into service, equipping the 41st Tactical Squadron (41. elt) and replacing its MiG-21s. At present Poland has 32 active MiG-29s (26 MiG-29As, six MiG-29UB) which will serve at least until 2012–2015. They are currently stationed with the 1st Tactical Squadron at the 23rd Air Base near Mińsk Mazowiecki and the 41st TS at the 22nd Air Base near Malbork. As of 2008, Poland is the biggest NATO MiG-29 user. The possibility of modernising the fighters to enable them to serve until 2020–2025 is being contemplated, depending on whether cooperation with Mikoyan can be established.

There have been unconfirmed reports that Poland had at one point leased a MiG-29 from their own inventory to Israel for evaluation and the aircraft has since been returned to Poland, as suggested by photographs of a MiG-29 in Israeli use. Three Polish Mig-29A were reported in Israel for evaluation between April and May 1997 at Negev desert.[၆၀] On 7 September 2011 the Polish Air Force awarded a contract to the WZL 2 company to modernise its MiG-29 fleet to be compatible with Polish F-16s.[၆၁]

အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထောင်စု[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ပိုလန်လေတပ်မှ မစ်-၂၉ လေယာဉ်အား အမေရိကန်လေတပ်၏ F-16လေယာဉ်နှင့်အတူတွေ့ရပုံ

In 1997, the United States purchased 21 Moldovan aircraft under the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program. Fourteen were MiG-29Ss, which are equipped with an active radar jammer in its spine and are capable of being armed with nuclear weapons. Part of the United States’ motive to purchase these aircraft was to prevent them from being sold to "rogue states", especially Iran.[၆၂] This purchase could also provide the United States Air Force with a working evaluation and data for the MiG-29, and possibly for use in dissimilar air combat training. Such information may prove valuable in any future conflicts and can aid in the design and testing of current and future weapons platforms. In late 1997, the MiGs were delivered to the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, though many of the former Moldovan MiG-29s are believed to have been scrapped.

Iraq[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Iraq received a number of MiG-29 fighters, and used MiG-29s to engage Iranian equivalent opponents like F-14, F-4 and F-5 during the later stages of the Iran-Iraq War. In addition to MiG-29s, the Iraqi Air Force used Soviet-made fighters such as the MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-25, Su-22, Su-24, Su-25, Mig-27, bombers such as the Soviet-made Tu-22, and other multi-role aircraft such as the Dassault Mirage F1 and Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard to fight against Iranian forces.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]

MiG-29s also saw combat in the 1991 Persian Gulf War with the Iraqi Air Force. Five MiG-29s were shot down by USAF F-15s.[၆၃] Some Russian sources reported that at least one Panavia Tornado, ZA467, was shot down in northwestern Iraq by a MiG-29.[၆၄][၆၅] UK sources claim this Tornado to have crashed on 22 January on a mission to Ar Rutbah.[၆၆]

Other Iraqi air-to-air kills are reported in Russian sources, where the US claims other cases of combat damage, such as the B-52 "In HARM's way", which the US claims was hit by friendly fire, when an AGM-88 High-speed, Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) homed on the fire-control radar of the B-52's tail gun; the jet was subsequently renamed "In HARM's Way".[၆၇]

Iraq's original fleet of 37 MiG-29s was reduced to 12 after the Gulf War. One MiG-29 was damaged, and four were evacuated to Iran.[၆၈] The remaining 12 aircraft were withdrawn from use in 1995 because the engines needed to be overhauled but Iraq could not send off them for that work.[၆၉]

After the 2003 US invasion of Iraq and disbandment of the Iraqi Army in May of the same year,[၇၀] the remaining Russian-made and Chinese-made fighters of Iraqi forces had been decommissioned, and to be replaced by recently ordered US-made F-16[၇၁] New Iraqi government was seeking to buy MiG-29s from Russia in 2012.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုအပ်][dubious ]

North Korea[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The Korean People's Air Force is believed to be operating about 40 MiG-29Bs and MiG-29SEs divided into the 55th and 57th fighter regiments based at Sunchon and Onchon, respectively.[၇၂] These were first encountered and photographed by the USAF in March 2003 when a pair of KPAF MiG-29s intercepted an RC-135S reconnaissance aircraft.[၇၃]Template:Verify source

Other countries[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

A Cuban MiG-29UB shot down two Cessna 337s belonging to the organisation Brothers to the Rescue in 1996, after the aircraft approached Cuban airspace.[၇၄]

A MiG-29AS of the Slovak Air Force

According to some reports, in the 1999 Eritrean-Ethiopian War, up to six Eritrean MiG-29s were shot down by Ethiopian Su-27s piloted by Russian mercenaries.[၇၅] There are also some other reports of Eritrean MiG-29s shooting down two Ethiopian MiG-21s, three MiG-23s, and an Su-25.[၇၆]

There are reports that on 14 September 2001 two Syrian Air Force MiG-29s were shot down by two IDF/AF F-15C while the MiGs were intercepting an Israeli reconnaissance aircraft off the coast of Lebanon. However, both Syria and Israel deny that this occurred.[၇၇][၇၈][၇၉]

Russia moved to expand its growing military influence in the Middle East when it announced it is giving Lebanon 10 fighter jets, in the most significant upgrade of Lebanon's military since the civil war ended almost two decades ago. Russia's defence ministry said it was giving the secondhand MiG-29s to Beirut free of charge. The gift was part of a defence cooperation deal that would see Moscow train Lebanese military personnel.[၈၀]

There have been occasional claims regarding the use of Sudanese Air Force MiG-29s against insurgent forces in Darfur. However, whereas Mi-24 'Hind' combat helicopters as well as A-5 'Fantan' or, more recently, Su-25 "Frogfoot" ground-attack aircraft have been spotted and photographed on Darfurian air fields, no MiG-29s have been observed. On 10 May 2008, a Darfur rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) mounted an assault on the Sudanese capital. During this action, the JEM shot down a Sudanese Air Force MiG-29 with 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm heavy machine gun fire while it was attacking a convoy of vehicles in the Khartoum suburb of Omdurman. The aircraft was piloted by a Russian mercenary. He was killed in action as his parachute did not open after ejecting.[၈၁][၈၂][၈၃]

During the brief 2012 South Sudan–Sudan border conflict, on 4 April 2012, Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) claimed the downing of a Sudanese MiG-29 using antiaircraft guns. The Sudan government denied the claim.[၈၄] On 16 April 2012, the SPLA issued a second claim about the downing of a Sudanese MiG-29.[၈၅] It was not clear if this second claim referred to the previous one.

Civilian[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The MiG-29 is available for flights of civilian passengers. Civilian flights started due to financial problems on Gromov Flight Research Institute in the Russian city Zhukovsky. Those flights in Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25, MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-27 stopped in July 2006, when civilian flights in MiG-29 and Mikoyan MiG-31 started from Nizhny Novgorod.

Variants[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

There are currently several upgrade programmes conducted by the Russian Air Force for MiG-29 fighters which envisage: upgrading of the avionics suite to comply with NATO / ICAO (www.icao.int) standards, extension of the aircraft service life to 4,000 flight hours (40 years), upgrading combat capabilities and reliability, safety enhancements. In 2005 the Russian Aircraft Corporation “MiG” started production of new unified family of multirole fighters of the 4++ generation (aircraft-carrier based MiG-29K, front-line MiG-29M and MiG-35 fighters).

A squadron of Bulgarian Air Force MiG-29 "Fulcrum-A"
MiG-29 (Product 9.12)
Initial production version; entered service in 1983. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-A".
MiG-29B-12 (Product 9.12A)
Downgraded export version for Warsaw Pact (9.12A) and non-Warsaw Pact nations (9.12B). Lacked a nuclear weapon delivery system and possessed downgraded radar, ECM and IFF. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-A".
MiG-29UB-12 (Product 9.51)
Twin seat training model. Infra-red sensor mounted only, no radar. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-B".
MiG-29S
The MiG-29S is similar in external appearance to older MiG-29B airframes, except for the dorsal hump behind the cockpit canopy. Differences start with the improvements in the flight control system. Four new computers provide better stability augmentation and controllability with an increase of 2° in angle of attack (AoA). Its improved mechanical-hydraulic flight control system allows for greater control surface deflections. The MiG-29S's dorsal hump, earning it the nickname "Fatback" in service, was originally believed to be for additional fuel, but in fact, most of its volume is used for the new L-203BE Gardenyia-1 ECM system.
The MiG-29S can carry 1,150 liter (304 US gallon, 2,000 lb) drop tanks under each wing and a centerline tank. Inboard underwing hardpoints are upgraded to allow for a tandem pylon arrangement for a larger payload of 4,000 kg (8,820 lb). Overall maximum gross weight has been raised to 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). The GSh-30-1 cannon had its expended round ejector port modified to allow for firing while the centerline tank is still attached. Improvements also allow for new longer-range air-to-air missiles like the R-27E (AA-10 "Alamo") and R-77 (AA-12 "Adder").
Initially, the avionics of the MiG-29S only added a new IRST sighting system combined with a better imbedded training system that allowed for IR and radar target simulation. However, the final MiG-29S improvement kit also provides for the Phazotron N019M radar and more built-in test equipment (BITE) (especially for the radar) to reduce dependence on ground support equipment; MiG MAPO calls this model the MiG-29SD. Revised weapon system algorithms in the MiG-29S's software, combined with an increase in processing capacity, allows for the tracking of up to 10 targets and the simultaneous engagement of two with the R-77 missile.
The MiG-29S also has a limited ground-attack capability with unguided munitions, but in order to transform the MiG-29 into a true multirole fighter, MAPO designed the MiG-29SM variant with the improved avionics necessary to carry and employ precision-guided weapons. The "SE/SD/SM" improvements in the MiG-29S, combined with the development money made available for the naval MiG-29K, gave MAPO the incentive to forge ahead with the multirole MiG-29M "Super Fulcrum".
Flight performance of the MiG-29S is but slightly reduced due to the additional weight of the additional fuel and avionics. Only 48 MiG-29S new-built airframes were produced for the Russian VVS before funding was cut. Of this number, it is unknown how many are the standard air-superiority "S" version and how many are the multirole "SM" version. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-C".
MiG-29S-13 (Product 9.13)
MiG-29 variant similar to the 9.12, but with an enlarged fuselage spine containing additional fuel and a Gardeniya active jammer. Product 9.13S is also version with the same airframe as the 9.13, but with an increased external weapons load of 4,000 kg, and provision for two underwing fuel tanks. Radar upgraded to N019ME, providing an ability to track 10 targets and engage two simultaneously. Compatible with the Vympel R-77 (AA-12 "Adder") air-to-air missile (similar to the AIM-120 AMRAAM). NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-C".
MiG-29SM (Product 9.13M)
Similar to the 9.13, but with the ability to carry guided air-to-surface missiles and TV- and laser-guided bombs. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-C".
German MiG-29GT
MiG-29G/MiG-29GT
It was an upgrade standard for the German Air Force's MiG-29 / 29UB, inherited from the former East Germany to the NATO standards. Works was done by MiG Aircraft Product Support GmbH (MAPS), a joint venture company form between MiG Moscow Aviation Production Association and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace in 1993.[၈၆]
MiG-29AS/MiG-29UBS (MiG-29SD)
Slovak Air Force performed an upgrade on their MiG-29/-29UB for NATO compatibility. Work is done by RAC MiG and Western firms, starting from 2005. The aircraft now has navigation and communications systems from Rockwell Collins, an IFF system from BAE Systems, new glass cockpit features multi-function LC displays and digital processors and also fitted to be integrate with Western equipment in the future. However, the armaments of the aircraft remain unchanged. 12 out of 21 of the entire MiG-29 fleet were upgraded and had been delivered as of late February, 2008.[၈၇]
MiG-29 Sniper
MiG-29 Sniper
Upgrade planned for Romanian Air Force, by Israeli firms. First flight occurred on 5 May 2000. The program was halted along with the retiring of Romanian MiG-29s in 2003. The latter occurred because of high maintenance costs, which led to the Romanian Government's decision to halt the MiG-29 program and further invest in the MiG-21 LanceR program.
MiG-29M
MiG-29M / MiG-33 (Product 9.15)


Advanced multirole variant, with a redesigned airframe, mechanical flight controls replaced by a fly-by-wire system and powered by enhanced RD-33 ser.3M engines. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-E".
MiG-29UBM (Product 9.61)
Two-seat training variant of the MiG-29M. Never built. Effectively continued under the designation 'MiG-29M2'.
MiG-29K at МАК 2007
MiG-29K (Product 9.31)


Naval variant based on MiG-29M, the letter "K" stands for "Korabelnogo bazirovaniya" (Deck-based ), with equipment such as folding wings, arrestor gear, and reinforced landing gear. Originally intended for the Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, had even received series production approval from Russian Ministry of Defence but was later grounded in 1992 due to shift in military doctrine and state financial difficulty.[၈၈] MiG Corporation restarted the program in 1999 and made vital improvement to the previous design. On 20 January 2004, Indian Navy signed a contract of 12 single-seat MiG-29K and four two-seat MiG-29KUB.[၈၈] Modifications were made for Indian Navy requirement, now standard for all current production. Current production MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB also share a two-seater size canopy. The MiG-29K has radar absorbing coatings to reduce radar signature. Cockpit displays consist of wide HUD and three (seven on MiG-29KUB) colour LCD MFDs with a Topsight E helmet-mounted targeting system. It has a full range of weapons compatible with the MiG-29M and MiG-29SMT.[၈၉] NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-D".
MiG-29KUB (Product 9.47)
Identical characteristic to the MiG-29K but with tandem twin seat configuration. The design is to serve as trainer for MiG-29K pilot and is full combat capable. The first MiG-29KUB developed for the Indian Navy made its maiden flight at the Russian Zhukovsky aircraft test centre on 22 January 2007.[၉၀] NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-D".
MiG-29SMT (Product 9.17)
The MiG-29SMT is an upgrade package of the first-generation MiG-29s (9.12 to 9.13) containing many enhancements intended for the MiG-29M. Additional fuel tanks in a further enlarged spine provide a maximum flight range of 2,100 km (on internal fuel). The cockpit has an enhanced HOTAS design, two 152 × 203 mm (6 × 8 inch) colour liquid crystal MFDs and two smaller monochrome LCDs. The upgraded Zhuk-ME radar provides similar features to the MiG-29M. The power plant are upgraded RD-33 ser.3 engines with afterburning thrust rated the same at 8,300 kgf (81.4 kN) each. The weapons load was increased to 4,500 kg on six underwing and one ventral hardpoints, with similar weapon choices as for the MiG-29M variant. The upgraded aircraft has also a painted path for non-Russian origin avionics and weapons.[၉၁]
MiG-29BM
"The MiG-29BM (probably Belorussian Modernised, possibly Bolyshaya Modernizaciya - large modernization) is an upgrade to the MiG-29 conducted by the ARZ-558 aircraft repair plant in Baranovichi, Belarus...The MiG-29BM is a strike variant of the MiG-29 pure fighter, the Belarussian counterpart to the Russian MiG-29SMT." It includes improvements to weapons, radar, as well as adding non-retractable air-air refueling ability.[၉၂]
MiG-29UBT (Product 9.51T)
SMT standard upgrade for the MiG-29UB. Namely users, Algeria and Yemen.[၉၃][၉၄]
MiG-29UPG
The Indian UPG version is similar to the SMT variant but differs by having a foreign-made avionics suite integrated within it, in the so called, "international avionics suite".[၃၀] The weapons suite is the same as the SMT and K/KUB versions.[၃၀] The design is a new modification intended for the MiG-29s used by Indian Air Force. It made its maiden flight on 4 February 2011. The standard includes the new Zhuk-M radar, new avionics, a IFR probe as well as new enhanced RD-33 series 3 turbojet engines. The modernization is part of a $900 million contract to upgrade the 69 fighters fleet.[၉၅]
MiG-29M2 / MiG-29MRCA
Two-seat version of MiG-29M. Identical characteristics to MiG-29M, with a slightly reduced ferry range of 1,800 km.[၉၆] RAC MiG presented in various air shows, including Fifth China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition (CIAAE 2004),[၉၇] Aero India 2005,[၉၈][၉၉] MAKS 2005.[၁၀၀] It was once given designation MiG-29MRCA for marketing purpose and now evolved into the current MiG-35.
MiG-29SMP / MiG-29UBP
Upgrade for the Peruvian Air Force MiG-29 fleet. In August 2008 a contract of US$ 106 million was signed with RAC MiG for this custom SMT upgrade of an initial batch of eight MiG-29, with a provision for upgrade of the remainder of the Peruvian MiG-29 fleet.[၁၀၁] The single-seat version is designated SMP, whereas the twin-seat version is designated UBP.
The SMP standard features an improved ECM suite, avionics, sensors, pilot interface, and a MIL-STD-1553 databus. The interfaces include improved IRST capabilities for enhanced passive detection and tracking as well as better off-boresight launch capabilities, one MFCD and HOTAS.[၁၀၂] The N019M1 radar, a heavily modified and upgraded digital version of the N019 radar, is used instead of the standard N010 Zhuk-M used on the MiG-29SMT. The upgrade also includes a structural life-extension program (SLEP), the overhaul, upgrade of the original engines and the installation of an in-flight refuelling probe.[၁၀၃]
MiG-29OVT on display
MiG-29OVT
The aircraft is one of the six pre-built MiG-29Ms before 1991, later received thrust-vectoring engine and fly-by-wire technology. It served as a thrust-vectoring engine testbed and technology demonstrator in various air shows to show future improvement in the MiG-29M. It has identical avionics to the MiG-29M. The only difference in the cockpit layout is an additional switch to turn on vector thrust function. The two RD-133 thrust-vectoring engines, each features unique rotating nozzles which can provide thrust vector deflection in all directions. However, despite its thrust-vectoring, other specifications were not officially emphasized. The aircraft is being demonstrated along with the MiG-29M2 in various air shows around the world for potential export. The aircraft is usually used as an aerobatic demonstrator.[၁၀၄]
MiG-35


A recently unveiled mature development of the MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29K/KUB. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-F".

Operators[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]


Operators of the MiG-29 in blue, former operators in red
Hungarian Air Force MiG-29
Peruvian Air Force MiG-29SE inflight

Former operators[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Aircraft on display[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Template:Refimprove section

Mig-29 on display in McMinnville, Oregon

There are several museums in Russia that display MiG-29s:

Several MiG-29s are on display in Europe:

  • One MiG-29 is on display at the Muzeum Wojska Polskiego in Warsaw, Poland.
  • Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków has a MiG-29, which served in the Polish Air Force.
  • One MiG-29 is on display in Germany. The only remaining German MiG-29G (29+03) was on display in Laage before being moved to the Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr in Berlin's Gatow Airport in 2006 as part of the exhibition "50 Jahre Luftwaffe".[၅၉][၁၂၈]
  • No. 67 (MiG-29 Sniper proto) is on display at the Romania Muzeul Aviatiei, Bucharest.
  • The second MiG-29UB prototype (9–52) is on display at the Riga Aviation Museum, in Riga, Latvia. After 213 test flights around Moscow between 23 August 1982 and 10 April 1986, it was disassembled and parts of the wings and tails were re-used in prototype (9–16). The remains were shipped to Riga Military Aviation Engineers High School, and later handed over to the Riga Aviation Museum in 1994, where it is currently displayed. The remains of this prototype is in a very bad condition, with open fuselage panels and a partly broken canopy and open cockpit that exposes the airframe to inclement weather.

MiG-29s are currently on display in the United States at the following locations:

In private ownership[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  • MiG-29UB (civilian registration N29UB) is owned by the Historic Flight Foundation in Seattle, Washington, US. The aircraft was obtained from Eastern Europe in early 2009. The aircraft has an FAA approved maintenance program and is flyable. The Historic Flight Foundation plans to fly the aircraft at air shows, as well as provide support services for other MiG-29s that become flyable in the United States.[၁၃၃]
  • A private collector, Don Kirlin, has two MiG-29s purchased from Kyrgyzstan. The aircraft are located at the Quincy Regional Airport in Quincy, Illinois, USA.[၁၃၄] As of 2010, they have an FAA approved maintenance program and are flyable, operated as part of Kirlin's "Red Air" operation.[၁၃၅]
  • Two additional MiG-29UB in flying condition were offered for sale from Eastern Europe in spring 2009. These aircraft come from the same source as the flyable aircraft owned by the Historic Flight Foundation.[၁၃၃]
  • The FAA lists five privately owned MiG-29s in the U.S.[၁၃၆]

Specifications (MiG-29)[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

MiG-29 FULCRUM (MIKOYAN-GUREVICH).png

Template:Aircraft specifications

See also[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Template:Portal Template:Aircontent

ကိုးကား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

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Notes[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Bibliography[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  • Day, Jerry. "Hot Hot Hot!" Air Classics, Volume 45, Issue 4, April 2009.
  • Eden, Paul, ed. "Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrum". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
  • Gordon, Yefim and Peter Davison. Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-29 Fulcrum. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2005. ISBN 978-1-58007-085-0.
  • Jenkins, Dennis R. McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Supreme Heavy-Weight Fighter. Arlington, Texas: Aerofax, 1998. ISBN 1-85780-081-8.
  • Lake, Jon. Jane's How to Fly and Fight in the Mikoyan MiG-29. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. ISBN 0-00-472144-6.
  • Spick, Mike, ed. "MiG-29 'Fulcrum'". "The Flanker". Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.


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