မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာဖွေရန်

ကိုဩဒိနိတ်: 47°38′23″N 122°7′42″W / 47.63972°N 122.12833°W / 47.63972; -122.12833

မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် ကော်ပိုရေးရှင်း
အမျိုးအစား အများဆိုင်
လုပ်ငန်း ဆော့ဝဲလ်
အသုံးပြုသူ အီလက်ထရွန်းနစ်
ကွန်ပျူတာ ဟဒ်ဝဲလ်
တည်ထောင်သည့်နှစ် အာဘူကူးကူး၊ နယူး မက္ကဆီကို၊ အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထောင်စု (ဧပြီ ၄၊ ၁၉၇၅ (၁၉၇၅-၀၄-၀၄))
တည်ထောင်သူများ ဘီလ်ဂိတ်၊ ပါအဲလန်။
ဌာနချုပ် မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် ရက်မွန် ရုံးဝန်း၊ ရက်မွန်၊ ဝါရှင်တန်မြို့,  အမေရိကန်
ဝန်ဆောင်မှု ဧရိယာ ကမ္ဘာတစ်ဝှမ်း
အရေးပါ ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်များ John W. Thompson (Chairman)
ထုတ်ကုန်ပစ္စည်း
ဝန်ဆောင်မှု
ဝင်ငွေ Increase US$ ၈၆.၈၃ ဘီလီယံ (၂၀၁၄)[၁]
အခွန်မဆောင်မှီ ဝင်ငွေ Increase US$ ၂၇.၇၆ ဘီလီယံ (၂၀၁၄)[၁]
အသားတင် ဝင်ငွေ Increase US$ ၂၂.၀၇ ဘီလီယံ (၂၀၁၄)[၁]
ရင်းနှီးမြှုပ်နှံမှု Increase US$ ၁၇၂.၃၈ ဘီလီယံ (၂၀၁၄)[၁]
စုစုပေါင်း ရှယ်ယာတန်ဖိုး Increase US$ ၈၉.၇၈ ဘီလီယံ (၂၀၁၄)[၁]
အလုပ်သမားဦးရေ ၁၂၈၀၇၆ (ဇွန်၊ ၂၀၁၄) [၂]
ကုမ္ပဏီခွဲ List of Microsoft subsidiaries
ဝက်ဘ်ဆိုက် Microsoft.com
References: [၃]

မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် (အင်္ဂလိပ်: Microsoft)သည် အမေရိကန်နိုင်ငံ၊ ဝါရှင်တန်ပြည်နယ် ရက်မွန်တွင် ရုံးချုပ်တည်ကာ ကွန်ပျူတာဆော့ဝဲလ်များ၊ အီလက်ထရောနစ်ပစ္စည်းများ၊ တကိုယ်ရေးသုံးကွန်ပျူတာ နှင့် အခြား နည်းပညာဝန်ဆောင်မှုများကို ထုတ်လုပ်၊ ရောင်းချ၊ ဝန်ဆောင်မှု ပေးနေသည့် ကုမ္ပဏီတစ်ခု ဖြစ်သည်။ ထုတ်လုပ်ရောင်းချနေသော ဆော့ဝဲလ်များထဲမှ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် ဝင်းဒိုး၊ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် အော့ဖစ် တို့မှာ လူသုံးများပြီး လူသိအများဆုံး ဖြစ်သည်။ ရောင်းချနေသော အီလက်ထရောနစ် ပစ္စည်းများထဲတွင် အိတ်စ်ဘောက် (X-Box) ဂိမ်းနှင့် မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် ဆာဖေ့ (Microsoft Surface) ကျောက်သင်ပုန်းကွန်ပျူတာတို့မှာ အဓိက ထုတ်ကုန်များ ဖြစ်သည်။ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်သည် ဝင်ငွေများအရ ဆော့ဝဲလ်ကုမ္ပဏီများထဲတွင်အကြီးဆုံးဖြစ်သည်။ [၄] ကမ္ဘာ့တန်ဖိုးအကြီးဆုံး ကုမ္ပဏီများထဲတွင်လည်း တစ်ခုအပါအဝင် ဖြစ်သည်။ [၅]

မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်ကို ဘီလ်ဂိတ် နှင့် ပေါလ်အလန် တို့က ၁၉၇၅ ခုနှစ် ဧပြီလ ၄ ရက်နေ့မှာ စတင်တည်ထောင်ခဲ့ကြတာ ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။ စတင်တည်ထောင်စဉ်က ရည်ရွယ်ချက်မှာ Altair 8800 ကွန်ပျူတာများအတွက် ကွန်ပျူတာ ဘာသာပြန်ပစ္စည်း BASIC interpreter ရောင်းချရန် ဖြစ်သည်။ ၁၉၈၀ နှစ်လယ်ပိုင်းတွင် နောက်ပိုင်းတွင် မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် ဝင်းဒိုးဖြစ်လာမည့် MS-DOS ဟုခေါ်ဆိုသော ကွန်ပျူတာ လည်ပတ်မှုစနစ် အသစ်ကို စတင်မိတ်ဆက်ခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၈၆ အရောက်မှာတော့ ကုမ္ပဏီ ရှယ်ယာဈေးတွေ မြင့်တက်လာခဲ့ပြီး ဝန်ထမ်းများထဲမှ ဘီလီယံ သူဌေး ၃ ယောက်နဲ့ မီလီယံ သူဌေး ၁၂၀၀၀ ခန့် ပေါ်ပေါက်ခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၉၀ ပြည့်နှစ်များအထိ ကွန်ပျူတာ လည်ပတ်မှု စနစ် ဈေးကွက်ကို ဦးဆောင်ထားနိုင်ဆဲ ဖြစ်သည်။ ၂၀၁၁ ခုနှစ် မေလမှာတော့ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်က စကိုက်ပ်လို့ခေါ်တဲ့ အင်တာနက်ကနေ ဖုန်းခေါ်ဆိုမှု ဝန်ဆောင်မှုပေးတဲ့ ကုမ္ပဏီကို ဒေါ်လာ သန်း ၈၅၀၀ နဲ့ဝယ်ယူခဲ့ပါတယ်။ [၆]

၂၀၁၃ ခုနှစ် စာရင်းများအရ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် တကိုယ်ရေသုံး ကွန်ပျူတာများမှာ ကွန်ပျူတာ လည်ပတ်မှုစနစ် နှင့် ရုံးသုံးဆော့ဝဲလ်များ ရောင်းချမှုများ ဈေးကွက်မှာ ဦးဆောင်မှု ရဆဲ ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်ဟာ ကွန်ပျူတာများနှင့် ဆာဗာများအတွက် ဆော့ဝဲလ်များ ထုတ်လုပ်ခြင်း၊ အင်တာနက်ဝက်ဘ်ဆိုက် ရှာဖွေမှု စနစ် "ဘင်း"၊ ဗီဒီယိုဂိမ်း "အိတ်ဘောက်"၊ နည်းပညာဝန်ဆောင်မှုဈေးကွက် "အမ်အက်စ်အန်" နှင့် မိုဘိုင်းဖုန်းများကိုပါ ထုတ်လုပ်ဖြန့်ချီ ဝန်ဆောင်မှုပေးနေပါတယ်။ ၂၀၁၂ ခုနှစ် ဇွန်လထဲမှာ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဟာ တကိုယ်ရေးသုံး ကွန်ပျူတာထုတ်လုပ်တဲ့ ဈေးကွက်ထဲကို ကြောက်သင်ပုန်း ကွန်ပျူတာ ဖြစ်တဲ့ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ် "ဆာဖေ့" ထုတ်လုပ်ခြင်းနှင့်အတူ ဝင်ရောက်လာပါတယ်။

မိုဘိုင်းဖုန်းလောကမှာ ဘုရင်ဖြစ်ခဲ့တဲ့ နိုကီယာ ရဲ့ ကိရိယာနှင့် ဝန်ဆောင်မှု ဌာနကိုဘည်း မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်ကနေ ဝယ်ယူခဲ့ပြီး စမတ်ဖုန်းထုတ်လုပ်ခြင်း ဈေးကွက်ထဲကိုလည်း ဝင်ရောက်ချဲ့ထွင်ခဲ့ပါတယ်။ [၇]

သမိုင်း[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

၁၉၇၂ မှ ၈၃ အထိ တည်ထောင်ခြင်းနှင့် ဖြစ်တည်ခြင်း[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

ပေါလ်အလန် နှင့် ဘီလ်ဂိတ် တို့သည် ငယ်စဉ်ကလေးဘဝကတည်းက သူငယ်ချင်းမျာဖြစ်ခဲ့ပြီး သူတို့သည် ကွန်ပျူတာ ပရိုဂရမ်များ ရေးသားခြင်းမှာ အထူးစိတ်ဝင်စားသူများ ဖြစ်ကြပါတယ်။ သူတို့ နှစ်ယောက်မှာ တူညီတဲ့ ရည်မှန်းချက်အနေနဲ့လည်း သူတို့၏ ကိုယ်ရေးကိုယ်တွေးတွေကို အသုံးချပြီး အောင်မြင်တဲ့ စီးပွားရေးလုပ်ငန်းတစ်ခု လုပ်ဆောင်ရန် ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။ ၁၉၇၂ ခုနှစ်မှာ "ထရမ့်-အို-ဒေတာ" လို့သူတို့ရဲ့ ပထမဆုံး ကုမ္ပဏီတစ်ခုကို တည်ထောင်ခဲ့ပါတယ်။ အလန်ဟာ ဝါရှင်တန် တက္ကသိုလ်မှာ ကွန်ပျူတာ သိပ္ပံ တက်ရောက်နေတာ ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။ သို့ပေမယ့် ကျောင်းထွက်ခဲ့ပြီး ဟန်နီဝဲလ် မှာ အလုပ်လုပ်ခဲ့ပါတယ်။ ဂိတ်က ဟားဗတ် တက္ကသိုလ်မှာ တက်ရောက်နေတာ ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။ [၈] ၁၉၇၅ ဇန်နဝါရီမှာတော့ ပေါပြူလာ အီလက်ထရောနစ်က MITS ရဲ့ Altair8800 ကွန်ပျူတာ အသေးစားလေးတွေမှာ ပြဿနာအချို့ ရှိခဲ့ပါတယ်။ အလန်က သူတို့ ဒီ Altair 8800 အတွက် ပရိုဂရမ်ရေးသားနိုင်ကြောင်း အကြံပြုခဲ့ပါတယ်။ ဘီလ်ဂိတ်က MITS ကိုဖုန်းဆက် အကြောင်းကြားခဲ့ပြီး MITS ကသူတို့ကို လာရောက်သရုပ်ပြရန် တောင်းဆိုခဲ့သည်။ သူတို့ဆီမှာ အမှန်တကယ် ပြုလုပ်ထားခြင်း မရှိသောလည်း နှစ်ယောက်ပေါင်း၍ အစမ်းတစ်ခု ပြုလုပ်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ အဲ့ဒီအစမ်းဟာ သရုပ်ပြပွဲမှာ အမှားအယွင်းမရှိ လုပ်ဆောင်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၇၅ မတ်လ နယူး မက္ကစီကိုမှာ MITS က Altair BASIC အဖြစ် ဈေးကွက်သို့ စတင်ဖြန့်ချီရန် သဘောတူညီခဲ့သည်။ [၉]:108, 112–114 They officially established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the Chief executive officer.[၁၀] အဲ့ဒီနောက်မှာတော့ အလန်ဟာ သူတို့၏ ကုမ္ပဏီနာမည်ကို Microprocessor နှင့် ဆော့ဝဲလ် ပေါင်းရေးထားတဲ့ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်အဖြစ် တည်ထောင်ခဲ့သည်။ ကုမ္ပဏီကို ဘယ်လ်လီဗျူး၊ ဝါရှင်တန် သို့ပြောင်းရွေ့ခဲ့သည်။ မိုက်ခရိုဆော့ဖ်သည် ၁၉၈၀ ပြည့်နှစ်တွင် ၎င်းတို့၏ Unix ဗားရှင်းအဖြစ် Xenix ကိုထုတ်လုပ်ပြီး ကွန်ပျူတာ လည်ပတ်မှုစနစ် (Operation System) စီးပွားရေးသို့ ဝင်ရောက်လာခဲ့သည်။ [၁၁] However, it was MS-DOS that solidified the company's dominance. After negotiations with Digital Research] failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, which was set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer (IBM PC).[၁၂] For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, branding it as MS-DOS, which IBM rebranded to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft eventually became the leading PC operating systems vendor. [၁၃]:210 The company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as a publishing division named Microsoft Press.[၉]:232 Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in February after developing Hodgkin's disease.[၉]:231

၁၉၉၅ မှ ၂၀၀၅ အင်တာနက် နှင့် ၃၂ဘစ် ခေတ်[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Bill Gates giving his deposition in 1998 for the United States v. Microsoft trial. Once the U.S. Department of Justice 1993 took over from the Federal Trade Commission, a protracted legal wrangling between Microsoft and the department ensued, resulting in various settlements and possible blocked mergers. Microsoft would point to companies such as AOL-Time Warner in its defense.[၁၄]

Following Bill Gates's internal "Internet Tidal Wave memo" on May 26, 1995, Microsoft began to redefine its offerings and expand its product line into computer networking and the World Wide Web.[၁၅] The company released Windows 95 on August 24, 1995, featuring pre-emptive multitasking, a completely new user interface with a novel start button, and 32-bit compatibility; similar to NT, it provided the Win32 API. [၁၆]:20 Windows 95 came bundled with the online service MSN, and for OEMs Internet Explorer, a web browser. Internet Explorer was not bundled with the retail Windows 95 boxes because the boxes were printed before the team finished the web browser, and instead was included in the Windows 95 Plus! pack.[၁၇] Branching out into new markets in 1996, Microsoft and NBC Universal created a new 24/7 cable news station, MSNBC.[၁၈] Microsoft created Windows CE 1.0, a new OS designed for devices with low memory and other constraints, such as personal digital assistants.[၁၉] In October 1997, the Justice Department filed a motion in the Federal District Court, stating that Microsoft violated an agreement signed in 1994 and asked the court to stop the bundling of Internet Explorer with Windows.[၉]:323–324

Bill Gates handed over the CEO position on January 13, 2000, to Steve Ballmer, an old college friend of Gates and employee of the company since 1980, creating a new position for himself as Chief Software Architect.[၉]:111, 228[၁၀] Various companies including Microsoft formed the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance in October 1999 to, among other things, increase security and protect intellectual property through identifying changes in hardware and software. Critics decry the alliance as a way to enforce indiscriminate restrictions over how consumers use software, and over how computers behave, a form of digital rights management; for example the scenario where a computer is not only secured for its owner, but also secured against its owner as well.[၂၀][၂၁] On April 3, 2000, a judgment was handed down in the case of United States v. Microsoft,[၂၂] calling the company an "abusive monopoly";[၂၃] it settled with the U.S. Department of Justice in 2004.[၂၄] On October 25, 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, unifying the mainstream and NT lines under the NT codebase.[၂၅] The company released the Xbox later that year, entering the game console market dominated by Sony and Nintendo.[၂၆] In March 2004 the European Union brought antitrust legal action against the company, citing it abused its dominance with the Windows OS, resulting in a judgment of €497 million ($613 million) and to produce new versions of Windows XP without Windows Media Player, Windows XP Home Edition N and Windows XP Professional N.[၂၇][၂၈]

၂၀၀၆ မှ ၂၀၁၀ ဝင်းဒိုးဗစ်စတာ၊ မိုဘိုင်း နှင့် ဝင်းဒိုး ၇[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

CEO Steve Ballmer at the MIX event in 2008. In an interview about his management style in 2005, he mentioned that his first priority was to get the people he delegates to in order. Ballmer also emphasized the need to continue pursuing new technologies even if initial attempts fail, citing the original attempts with Windows as an example.[၂၉]

Released in January 2007, the next version of Windows, Windows Vista, focused on features, security, and a redesigned user interface dubbed Aero.[၃၀][၃၁] Microsoft Office 2007, released at the same time, featured a "Ribbon" user interface which was a significant departure from its predecessors. Relatively strong sales of both titles helped to produce a record profit in 2007.[၃၂] The European Union imposed another fine of €899 million ($1.4 billion) for Microsoft's lack of compliance with the March 2004 judgment on February 27, 2008, saying that the company charged rivals unreasonable prices for key information about its workgroup and backoffice servers. Microsoft stated that it was in compliance and that "these fines are about the past issues that have been resolved".[၃၃]

2007 also saw the creation of a multi-core unit at Microsoft, as they followed in the steps of server companies such as Sun and IBM.[၃၄]

Bill Gates retired from his role as Chief Software Architect on June 27, 2008, while retaining other positions related to the company in addition to being an advisor for the company on key projects.[၃၅] Azure Services Platform, the company's entry into the cloud computing market for Windows, launched on October 27, 2008.[၃၆] On February 12, 2009, Microsoft announced its intent to open a chain of Microsoft-branded retail stores, and on October 22, 2009, the first retail Microsoft Store opened in Scottsdale, Arizona; the same day the first store opened, Windows 7 was officially released to the public. Windows 7's focus was on refining Vista with ease of use features and performance enhancements, rather than a large reworking of Windows.[၃၇][၃၈][၃၉]

As the smartphone industry boomed beginning in 2007, Microsoft struggled to keep up with its rivals Apple and Google in providing a modern smartphone operating system. As a result, in 2010, Microsoft revamped their aging flagship mobile operating system, Windows Mobile, replacing it with the new Windows Phone OS; along with a new strategy in the smartphone industry that has Microsoft working more closely with smartphone manufacturers, such as Nokia, and to provide a consistent user experience across all smartphones using Microsoft's Windows Phone OS. It used a new user interface design language, codenamed "Metro", which prominently used simple shapes, typography and iconography, and the concept of minimalism.

Microsoft is a founding member of the Open Networking Foundation started on March 23, 2011. Other founding companies include Google, HP Networking, Yahoo, Verizon, Deutsche Telekom and 17 other companies. The nonprofit organization is focused on providing support for a new cloud computing initiative called Software-Defined Networking.[၄၀] The initiative is meant to speed innovation through simple software changes in telecommunications networks, wireless networks, data centers and other networking areas.[၄၁]

၂၀၁၁ မှ ယနေ့အထိ ပြန်လည်မွန်းမံခြင်း၊ ဝင်းဒိုး ၈ နှင့် နိုကီယာ ပစ္စည်းများ[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

General design principle behind the Start screen in Windows 8.1, Windows Phone and Xbox One

Following the release of Windows Phone, Microsoft underwent a gradual rebranding of its product range throughout 2011 and 2012—the corporation's logos, products, services, and websites adopted the principles and concepts of the Metro design language.[၄၂] Microsoft previewed Windows 8, an operating system designed to power both personal computers and tablet computers, in Taipei in June 2011.[၄၃] A developer preview was released on September 13, and was replaced by a consumer preview on February 29, 2012.[၄၄] On May 31, 2012, the preview version was released.

On June 18, 2012, Microsoft unveiled the Surface, the first computer in the company's history to have its hardware made by Microsoft.[၄၅][၄၆] On June 25, Microsoft paid US$1.2 billion to buy the social network Yammer.[၄၇] On July 31, 2012, Microsoft launched the Outlook.com webmail service to compete with Gmail.[၄၈] On September 4, 2012, Microsoft released Windows Server 2012.[၄၉] On October 1, Microsoft announced its intention to launch a news operation, part of a new-look MSN, at the time of the Windows 8 launch that was later in the month.[၅၀] On October 26, 2012, Microsoft launched Windows 8 and the Microsoft Surface.[၄၆][၅၁] Three days later, Windows Phone 8 was launched.[၅၂] To cope with the potential for an increase in demand for products and services, Microsoft opened a number of "holiday stores" across the U.S. to complement the increasing number of "bricks-and-mortar" Microsoft Stores that opened in 2012.[၅၃]

On March 29, 2013, Microsoft launched a Patent Tracker.[၅၄] The Kinect, the motion sensing input devices by Microsoft, which was first introduced in November 2010 was upgraded for the 2013 release of the eighth-generation Xbox One. Its capabilities were revealed in May 2013. The new Kinect uses an ultra-wide 1080p camera, it can function in the dark due to an infrared sensor, it employs higher-end processing power and new software, it can distinguish between fine movements (such as a thumb movements), and the device can determine a user's heart rate by looking at his/her face.[၅၅] Microsoft filed a patent application in 2011 that suggests that the corporation may use the Kinect camera system to monitor the behavior of television viewers as part of a plan to make the viewing experience more active. On July 19, 2013, Microsoft stocks suffered its biggest one-day percentage sell-off since the year 2000 after its fourth-quarter report raised concerns among the investors on the poor showings of both Windows 8 and the Surface tablet; with more than 11 percentage points declining Microsoft suffered a loss of more than US$32 billion.[၅၆] For the 2010 fiscal year, Microsoft had five product divisions: Windows Division, Server and Tools, Online Services Division, Microsoft Business Division, and Entertainment and Devices Division.

John W. Thompson has been appointed the chairman of Microsoft, taking over from Bill Gates.

On September 3, 2013, Microsoft agreed to buy Nokia's mobile unit for $7 billion.[၅၇] Also in 2013, Amy Hood became the CFO of Microsoft.[၅၈]

The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) was launched in October 2013 and Microsoft is part of the coalition of public and private organizations that also includes Facebook, Intel and Google. Led by Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google will help to decrease internet access prices so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.[၅၉]

In line with the maturing PC business, in July 2013 Microsoft announced that it would reorganize the business into 4 new business divisions by function: Operating System, Apps, Cloud and Devices. All previous divisions will be diluted into new divisions without any workforce cut.[၆၀]

On February 4, 2014, Steve Ballmer stepped down as CEO of Microsoft and was succeeded by Satya Nadella, who previously led Microsoft's Cloud and Enterprise division.[၆၁] On the same day, John W. Thompson took on the role of chairman, with Bill Gates stepping down from the position to become more active within the company as Technology Advisor.

On April 25, 2014, Microsoft acquired Nokia Devices and Services and formed a new subsidiary, Microsoft Mobile Oy.

On September 15, 2014, Microsoft acquired the video game development company Mojang for $2.5 billion, best known for its wildly popular flagship game Minecraft.[၆၂]

စီးပွားရေးများ[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

ဝင်းဒိုးဌာန၊ ဆာဗာနှင့် ကိရိယာများ အွန်လိုင်း ဝန်ဆောင်မှု ဌာန[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

The company's Client division produces the flagship Windows OS line such as Windows 8; it also produces the Windows Live family of products and services. Server and Tools produces the server versions of Windows, such as Windows Server 2008 R2 as well as a set of development tools called Microsoft Visual Studio, Microsoft Silverlight, a web application framework, and System Center Configuration Manager, a collection of tools providing remote-control abilities, patch management, software distribution and a hardware/software inventory. Other server products include: Microsoft SQL Server, a relational database management system, Microsoft Exchange Server, for certain business-oriented e-mail and scheduling features, Small Business Server, for messaging and other small business-oriented features; and Microsoft BizTalk Server, for business process management.

Microsoft provides IT consulting ("Microsoft Consulting Services") and produces a set of certification programs handled by the Server and Tools division designed to recognize individuals who have a minimal set of proficiencies in a specific role; this includes developers ("Microsoft Certified Solution Developer"), system/network analysts ("Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer"), trainers ("Microsoft Certified Trainers") and administrators ("Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator" and "Microsoft Certified Database Administrator"). Microsoft Press, which publishes books, is also managed by the division. The Online Services Business division handles the online service MSN and the search engine Bing. As of December 2009, the company also possesses an 18% ownership of the cable news channel MSNBC without any editorial control; however, the division develops the channel's website, msnbc.com, in a joint venture with the channel's co-owner, NBC Universal.[၆၃]

စီးပွားရေး ဌာန[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

The Commons, located on the campus of the company's headquarters in Redmond

The Microsoft Business Division produces Microsoft Office including Microsoft Office 2010, the company's line of office software. The software product includes Word (a word processor), Access (a relational database program), Excel (a spreadsheet program), Outlook (Groupware, frequently used with Exchange Server), PowerPoint (presentation software), Publisher (desktop publishing software) and Sharepoint. A number of other products were added later with the release of Office 2003 including Visio, Project, MapPoint, InfoPath and OneNote. The division also develops enterprise resource planning (ERP) software for companies under the Microsoft Dynamics brand. These include: Microsoft Dynamics AX, Microsoft Dynamics NAV, Microsoft Dynamics GP, and Microsoft Dynamics SL. They are targeted at varying company types and countries, and limited to organizations with under 7,500 employees.[၆၄] Also included under the Dynamics brand is the customer relationship management software Microsoft Dynamics CRM, part of the Azure Services Platform.

ဖျော်ဖြေရေးနှင့် ကိရိယာ ဌာန[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

အခြားကြည့်ရန်။ Microsoft Mobile Oy

The Entertainment and Devices Division produces the Windows CE OS for embedded systems and Windows Phone for smartphones.[၆၅] Microsoft initially entered the mobile market through Windows CE for handheld devices, eventually developing into the Windows Mobile OS and now, Windows Phone. Windows CE is designed for devices where the OS may not directly be visible to the end user, in particular, appliances and cars. The division also produces computer games, via its in-house game publisher Microsoft Studios, that run on Windows PCs and other systems including titles such as Age of Empires, Halo and the Microsoft Flight Simulator series, and houses the Macintosh Business Unit which produces Mac OS software including Microsoft Office 2011 for Mac. Microsoft's Entertainment and Devices Division designs, markets, and manufactures consumer electronics including the Xbox 360 game console, the handheld Zune media player, and the television-based Internet appliance MSN TV. Microsoft also markets personal computer hardware including mice, keyboards, and various game controllers such as joysticks and gamepads.

ယဉ်ကျေးမှု[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Technical reference for developers and articles for various Microsoft magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal (MSJ) are available through the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). MSDN also offers subscriptions for companies and individuals, and the more expensive subscriptions usually offer access to pre-release beta versions of Microsoft software.[၆၆][၆၇] In April 2004 Microsoft launched a community site for developers and users, titled Channel 9, that provides a wiki and an Internet forum.[၆၈] Another community site that provides daily videocasts and other services, On10.net, launched on March 3, 2006.[၆၉] Free technical support is traditionally provided through online Usenet newsgroups, and CompuServe in the past, monitored by Microsoft employees; there can be several newsgroups for a single product. Helpful people can be elected by peers or Microsoft employees for Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) status, which entitles them to a sort of special social status and possibilities for awards and other benefits.[၇၀]

Noted for its internal lexicon, the expression "eating our own dog food" is used to describe the policy of using pre-release and beta versions of products inside Microsoft in an effort to test them in "real-world" situations.[၇၁] This is usually shortened to just "dog food" and is used as noun, verb, and adjective. Another bit of jargon, FYIFV or FYIV ("Fuck You, I'm [Fully] Vested"), is used by an employee to indicate they are financially independent and can avoid work anytime they wish.[၇၂] The company is also known for its hiring process, mimicked in other organizations and dubbed the "Microsoft interview", which is notorious for off-the-wall questions such as "Why is a manhole cover round?".[၇၃]

Microsoft is an outspoken opponent of the cap on H1B visas, which allow companies in the U.S. to employ certain foreign workers. Bill Gates claims the cap on H1B visas makes it difficult to hire employees for the company, stating "I'd certainly get rid of the H1B cap" in 2005.[၇၄] Critics of H1B visas argue that relaxing the limits would result in increased unemployment for U.S. citizens due to H1B workers working for lower salaries.[၇၅] The Human Rights Campaign Corporate Equality Index, a report of how progressive the organization deems company policies towards LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual) employees, rated Microsoft as 87% from 2002 to 2004 and as 100% from 2005 to 2010 after they allowed gender expression.[၇၆]

Criticism[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

အကျယ်တဝင့် ဖော်ပြထားသောဆောင်းပါး - Criticism of Microsoft
BadVista and Defective by Design groups protest against Windows Vista

Criticism of Microsoft has followed the company's existence because of various aspects of its products and business practices. Ease of use, stability, and security of the company's software are common targets for critics. More recently, Trojan horses and other exploits have plagued numerous users due to faults in the security of Microsoft Windows and other programs. Microsoft is also accused of locking vendors into their products, and not following and complying with existing standards in its software.[၇၇] Total cost of ownership comparisons of Linux as well as OS X to Windows are a continuous point of debate.

The company has been in numerous lawsuits by several governments and other companies for unlawful monopolistic practices. In 2004, the European Union found Microsoft guilty in a highly publicized anti-trust case. Additionally, Microsoft's EULA for some of its programs is often criticized as being too restrictive as well as being against open source software.

Microsoft has been criticized (along with Yahoo, AOL, Google and others) for its involvement in censorship in the People's Republic of China.[၇၈] Microsoft has also come under criticism for outsourcing jobs to China and India.[၇၉][၈၀][၈၁] There were reports of poor working conditions at a factory in southern China that makes some of Microsoft's products.[၈၂]

Corporate affairs[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

The company is run by a board of directors made up of mostly company outsiders, as is customary for publicly traded companies. Members of the board of directors as of September 2014 are: John W. Thompson, Dina Dublon, Bill Gates, Maria Klawe, David Marquardt, Mason Morfit,[၈၃] Satya Nadella, Charles Noski, Helmut Panke and John W. Stanton.[၈၄] Board members are elected every year at the annual shareholders' meeting using a majority vote system. There are five committees within the board which oversee more specific matters. These committees include the Audit Committee, which handles accounting issues with the company including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the company; the Finance Committee, which handles financial matters such as proposing mergers and acquisitions; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters including nomination of the board; and the Antitrust Compliance Committee, which attempts to prevent company practices from violating antitrust laws.[၈၅]

Five year history graph of Template:NASDAQ stock on July 17, 2013[၈၆]

When Microsoft went public and launched its initial public offering (IPO) in 1986, the opening stock price was $21; after the trading day, the price closed at $27.75. As of July 2010, with the company's nine stock splits, any IPO shares would be multiplied by 288; if one was to buy the IPO today given the splits and other factors, it would cost about 9 cents.[၉]:235–236[၈၇][၈၈] The stock price peaked in 1999 at around $119 ($60.928 adjusting for splits).[၈၉] The company began to offer a dividend on January 16, 2003, starting at eight cents per share for the fiscal year followed by a dividend of sixteen cents per share the subsequent year, switching from yearly to quarterly dividends in 2005 with eight cents a share per quarter and a special one-time payout of three dollars per share for the second quarter of the fiscal year.[၈၉][၉၀] Though the company had subsequent increases in dividend payouts, the price of Microsoft's stock remained steady for years.[၉၀][၉၁]

One of Microsoft's business tactics, described by an executive as "embrace, extend and extinguish," initially embraces a competing standard or product, then extends it to produce their own version which is then incompatible with the standard, which in time extinguishes competition that does not or cannot use Microsoft's new version. Various companies and governments sue Microsoft over this set of tactics, resulting in billions of dollars in rulings against the company. [၂၂][၂၈] Microsoft claims that the original strategy is not anti-competitive, but rather an exercise of its discretion to implement features it believes customers want.[၉၂]

Financial[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Standard and Poor's and Moody's have both given a AAA rating to Microsoft, whose assets were valued at $41 billion as compared to only $8.5 billion in unsecured debt. Consequently, in February 2011 Microsoft released a corporate bond amounting to $2.25 billion with relatively low borrowing rates compared to government bonds.[၉၃]

For the first time in 20 years Apple Inc. surpassed Microsoft in Q1 2011 quarterly profits and revenues due to a slowdown in PC sales and continuing huge losses in Microsoft's Online Services Division (which contains its search engine Bing). Microsoft profits were $5.2 billion, while Apple Inc. profits were $6 billion, on revenues of $14.5 billion and $24.7 billion respectively.[၉၄]

Microsoft's Online Services Division has been continuously loss-making since 2006 and in Q1 2011 it lost $726 million. This follows a loss of $2.5 billion for the year 2010.[၉၅]

On July 20, 2012, Microsoft posted its first quarterly loss ever, despite earning record revenues for the quarter and fiscal year, with a net loss of $492 million due to a writedown related to the advertising company aQuantive, which had been acquired for $6.2 billion back in 2007.[၉၆]

As of January 2014, Microsoft's market capitalization stood at $314B,[၉၇] making it the 8th largest company in the world by market capitalization.[၉၈]

On November 14, 2014, Microsoft overtook Exxon Mobil to become the 2nd most valuable company by market capitalization, behind only Apple Inc. Its total market value was over $410B - with the stock price hitting $50.04 a share, the highest since early 2000.[၉၉]

Environment[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

In 2011, Greenpeace released a report rating the top ten big brands in cloud computing on their sources of electricity for their data centers. At the time, data centers consumed up to 2% of all global electricity and this amount was projected to increase. Phil Radford of Greenpeace said "we are concerned that this new explosion in electricity use could lock us into old, polluting energy sources instead of the clean energy available today,"[၁၀၀] and called on "Amazon, Microsoft and other leaders of the information-technology industry must embrace clean energy to power their cloud-based data centers."[၁၀၁] In 2013, Microsoft agreed to buy power generated by a Texas wind project to power one of its data centers.[၁၀၂]

Microsoft is ranked on the 17th place in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics (16th Edition) that ranks 18 electronics manufacturers according to their policies on toxic chemicals, recycling and climate change. Microsoft's timeline for phasing out BFRs and phthalates in all products is 2012 but its commitment to phasing out PVC is not clear. As yet (January 2011) it has no products that are completely free from PVC and BFRs.[၁၀၃]

Microsoft's main U.S. campus received a silver certification from the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program in 2008, and it installed over 2,000 solar panels on top of its buildings in its Silicon Valley campus, generating approximately 15 percent of the total energy needed by the facilities in April 2005.[၁၀၄]

Microsoft makes use of alternative forms of transit. It created one of the world's largest private bus systems, the "Connector", to transport people from outside the company; for on-campus transportation, the "Shuttle Connect" uses a large fleet of hybrid cars to save fuel. The company also subsidises regional public transport as an incentive.[၁၀၄][၁၀၅] In February 2010 however, Microsoft took a stance against adding additional public transport and high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes to a bridge connecting Redmond to Seattle; the company did not want to delay the construction any further.[၁၀၆]

Microsoft was ranked number 1 in the list of the World's Best Multinational Workplaces by the Great Place to Work Institute in 2011.[၁၀၇]

Marketing[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

In 2004, Microsoft commissioned research firms to do independent studies comparing the total cost of ownership (TCO) of Windows Server 2003 to Linux; the firms concluded that companies found Windows easier to administrate than Linux, thus those using Windows would administrate faster resulting in lower costs for their company (i.e. lower TCO).[၁၀၈] This spurred a wave of related studies; a study by the Yankee Group concluded that upgrading from one version of Windows Server to another costs a fraction of the switching costs from Windows Server to Linux, although companies surveyed noted the increased security and reliability of Linux servers and concern about being locked into using Microsoft products.[၁၀၉] Another study, released by the Open Source Development Labs, claimed that the Microsoft studies were "simply outdated and one-sided" and their survey concluded that the TCO of Linux was lower due to Linux administrators managing more servers on average and other reasons.[၁၁၀]

As part of the "Get the Facts" campaign, Microsoft highlighted the .NET trading platform that it had developed in partnership with Accenture for the London Stock Exchange, claiming that it provided "five nines" reliability. After suffering extended downtime and unreliability[၁၁၁][၁၁၂] the LSE announced in 2009 that it was planning to drop its Microsoft solution and switch to a Linux based one in 2010.[၁၁၃][၁၁၄]

In 2012, Microsoft hired a political pollster named Mark Penn, whom the New York Times called "famous for bulldozing" his political opponents [၁၁၅] as Executive Vice-President, Advertising and Strategy. Penn created a series of negative ads targeting one of Microsoft's chief competitors, Google. The ads, called "Scroogled", attempt to make the case that Google is "screwing" consumers with search results rigged to favor Google's paid advertisers, that Gmail violates the privacy of its users to place ad results related to the content of their emails and shopping results which favor Google products. Tech publications like Tech Crunch have been highly critical of the ad campaign,[၁၁၆] while Google employees have embraced it.[၁၁၇]

Lay off[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

In July 2014, Microsoft announced plans to lay off 18,000 employees. Microsoft employed 127,104 people as of June 5, 2014, making this about a 14 percent reduction of its workforce as the biggest Microsoft lay off ever. It will include 12,500 professional and factory personnel. Previously, Microsoft has laid off 5,800 jobs in 2009 in line with US financial crisis.[၁၁၈][၁၁၉]

In September 2014, Microsoft laid off 2,100 people, including 747 people in the Seattle-Redmond area, where the company is headquartered. The firings came as a second wave of the layoffs that were previously announced. This brings the total number to over 15,000 out of the 18,000 expected cuts.[၁၂၀]

In October 2014, Microsoft revealed that it was almost done with the elimination of 18,000 employees which is its largest ever layoff sweep.

Cooperation with the United States Government[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Microsoft provides information about reported bugs in their software to intelligence agencies of the United States government, prior to the public release of the fix. A Microsoft spokesperson has stated that the corporation runs several programs that facilitate the sharing of such information with the U.S. government.[၁၂၁]

Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in May 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including Microsoft.[၁၂၂] According to leaks of said program, Microsoft joined the PRISM program in 2007.[၁၂၃] However, in June 2013, an official statement from Microsoft flatly denied their participation in the program:

We provide customer data only when we receive a legally binding order or subpoena to do so, and never on a voluntary basis. In addition we only ever comply with orders for requests about specific accounts or identifiers. If the government has a broader voluntary national security program to gather customer data, we don't participate in it.[၁၂၄]

During the first six months in 2013, Microsoft had received requests that affected between 15,000 and 15,999 accounts.[၁၂၅] In December of 2013, the company made statement to further emphasis the fact that they take their customers' privacy and data protection very seriously, even saying that "government snooping potentially now constitutes an “advanced persistent threat,” alongside sophisticated malware and cyber attacks".[၁၂၆] The statement also marked the beginning of three-part program to enhance Microsoft's encryption and transparency efforts. In July 1, 2014, as part of this program they opened the first (of many) Microsoft Transparency Center, that provides "participating governments with the ability to review source code for our key products, assure themselves of their software integrity, and confirm there are no “back doors.”[၁၂၇]

Microsoft has also argued that the United States Congress should enact strong privacy regulations to protect consumer data.[၁၂၈]

လိုဂို[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Microsoft adopted the so-called "Pac-Man Logo", designed by Scott Baker, in 1987. Baker stated "The new logo, in Helvetica italic typeface, has a slash between the o and s to emphasize the "soft" part of the name and convey motion and speed."[၁၂၉] Dave Norris ran an internal joke campaign to save the old logo, which was green, in all uppercase, and featured a fanciful letter O, nicknamed the blibbet, but it was discarded.[၁၃၀] Microsoft's logo with the "Your potential. Our passion." tagline below the main corporate name, is based on a slogan Microsoft used in 2008. In 2002, the company started using the logo in the United States and eventually started a TV campaign with the slogan, changed from the previous tagline of "Where do you want to go today?".[၁၃၁][၁၃၂][၁၃၃] During the private MGX (Microsoft Global Exchange) conference in 2010, Microsoft unveiled the company's next tagline, "Be What's Next.".[၁၃၄]

On August 23, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new corporate logo at the opening of its 23rd Microsoft store in Boston indicating the company's shift of focus from the classic style to the tile-centric modern interface which it uses/will use on the Windows Phone platform, Xbox 360, Windows 8 and the upcoming Office Suites.[၁၃၅] The new logo also includes four squares with the colors of the then-current Windows logo which have been used to represent Microsoft's four major products: Windows (blue), Office (red), Xbox (green), and Bing (yellow).[၁၃၆] However this logo is not completely new—it was featured in Windows 95 commercials from the mid-1990s.[၁၃၇][၁၃၈]

  • 1987 – Microsoft "Pac-Man" logo, designed by Scott Baker and used from 1987 to 2012 with the 1994–2002 slogan "Where do you want to go today?".[၁၃၁][၁၃၂]
  • 2006–2011 – Microsoft logo as of 2006–2011, with the slogan "Your potential. Our passion."[၁၃၂]
  • 2011–2012 – Logo by Microsoft with the slogan "Be what's next."[၁၃၄]
  • 2012–present – Introduced on August 23, 2012, to symbolize the "world of digital motion" and Microsoft's "diverse portfolio of products".[၁၃၉]

ဆက်စပ်ကြည့်ရန်[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Bill Gates

ကျမ်းကိုး[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ ၁.၂ ၁.၃ ၁.၄ Earnings Release FY14 Q4။ Microsoft (July 22, 2014)။ September 15, 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  2. Revenue and Headcount။ Microsoft။ 2014-09-15 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  3. Microsoft Corporation Annual Reports။ Microsoft Corporation (July 28, 2014)။ August 23, 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  4. Global Software Top 100 – Edition 2011။ Softwaretop100.Org (23 August 2011)။
  5. Market Cap RankingsYcharts။ Zacks Investment Research (April 8, 2012)။ April 9, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  6. Microsoft buys Skype for $8.5 billion။ The Search Office Space Blog (May 10, 2011)။ April 4, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  7. Notify The Next Of KinInformationWeek (30 June 2010)။
  8. Microsoft Company History
  9. ၉.၀ ၉.၁ ၉.၂ ၉.၃ ၉.၄ ၉.၅ ကိုးကား အမှား - Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Allan_2001
  10. ၁၀.၀ ၁၀.၁ "Bill Gates: A Timeline"၊ BBC News၊ BBC၊ July 15, 2006။ July 17, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  11. Dyar, Dafydd Neal။ "Under The Hood: Part 8"၊ Computer Source၊ November 4, 2002။ July 14, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။ Archived from the original on September 11, 2006။ 
  12. (2002) Engines that move markets. Books.google.co.uk. ISBN 9780471205951. Retrieved on May 29, 2011. 
  13. Blaxill, Mark (March 5, 2009). "The Invisible Edge: Taking Your Strategy to the Next Level Using Intellectual Property". Portfolio Hardcover. Retrieved on July 7, 2010. 
  14. ကိုးကား အမှား - Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WiredUSDOJ
  15. Borland, John။ "Victor: Software empire pays high price"၊ CNET၊ CBS Interactive၊ April 15, 2003။ July 16, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  16. Pietrek, Matt (March 1996). "Windows 95 Programming Secrets" (PDF). IDG. Retrieved on July 17, 2010. 
  17. Thurrott, Paul။ "MSN: The Inside Story"၊ winsupersite.com၊ Penton Media၊ May 31, 2005။ July 17, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  18. Marketplace: News ArchivesMarketplace။ American Public Media (July 15, 1996)။ Archived from the original on August 23, 2004။
  19. Tilly, Chris။ The History of Microsoft Windows CEHPC:Factor။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  20. Markoff, John။ "Fears of Misuse of Encryption System Are Voiced"၊ The New York Times၊ June 20, 2002။ July 7, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  21. Stajano, Frank (2003). "Security for whom? The shifting security assumptions of pervasive computing". Software Security—Theories and Systems 2609: 16–27. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/3-540-36532-X_2. Retrieved on July 6, 2010. 
  22. ၂၂.၀ ၂၂.၁ United States v. Microsoft။ U.S. Department of Justice။ August 5, 2005 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  23. Jackson, Thomas Penfield (November 5, 1999)။ U.S. vs. Microsoft findings of fact။ U.S. Department of Justice။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  24. ကိုးကား အမှား - Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CBSCHRON
  25. Thurrott, Paul။ "WinInfo Short Takes: Windows XP Launch Special Edition"၊ Windows IT Pro၊ Penton Media၊ October 26, 2001။ July 16, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  26. "NPD Reports Annual 2001 U.S. Interactive Entertainment Sales Shatter Industry Record"၊ Business Wire၊ CBS Interactive၊ February 7, 2002။ March 31, 2007 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  27. "Microsoft hit by record EU fine"၊ CNN၊ March 25, 2004။ August 14, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။ Archived from the original on April 13, 2006။ 
  28. ၂၈.၀ ၂၈.၁ Commission Decision of 24.03.2004 relating to a proceeding under Article 82 of the EC Treaty (Case COMP/C-3/37.792 Microsoft) (PDF)။ Commission of the European Communities (April 21, 2004)။ August 5, 2005 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  29. Wee၊ Gerald။ "Steve Ballmer on management style"၊ ITWorldIDG၊ November 10, 2005။ January 29, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  30. Vamosi၊ Robert (January 23, 2007)။ Windows Vista Ultimate reviewCNETCBS Interactive။ April 4, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  31. Ricadela, Aaron (February 14, 2006)။ Gates Says Security Is Job One For VistaInformationWeek။ UBM TechWeb။ April 4, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  32. Vista gives Microsoft view of record profitEdinburgh Evening NewsJohnston Press (April 27, 2007)။ February 1, 2009 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  33. "AFP:EU hits Microsoft with record 899 million euro antitrust fine"၊ Google NewsGoogle၊ February 27, 2008။ June 1, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  34. Microsoft, Multi-core and the Data Center
  35. Conte, Natali Del။ "Bill Gates Announces Resignation"၊ PC MagazineZiff Davis၊ June 15, 2006။ July 17, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  36. Fried၊ Ina (October 27, 2008)။ Microsoft launches Windows AzureCNET။ CBS Interactive။ July 6, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  37. Fried၊ Ina (February 12, 2009)။ Microsoft follows Apple into the retail businessCNET။ CBS Interactive။ July 17, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  38. Gaynor, Tim။ "Long lines as Microsoft opens retail store"၊ ReutersThomson Reuters၊ October 22, 2009။ July 3, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  39. Mintz, Jessica။ "Windows 7 operating system makes its debut"၊ NBCNews.comNBCUniversal၊ October 22, 2009။ April 4, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  40. Erickson၊ David (March 21, 2011)။ Open Networking Foundation News ReleaseOpenflow.org။ May 29, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  41. "Google and other titans form Open Networking Foundation." Noyes, March 23, 2011ComputerworldIDG (March 23, 2011)။ May 29, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  42. Windows Phone 7 Series UI Design & Interaction Guide (March 18, 2010)။ 2010-10-09 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  43. "Microsoft releases final test version of Windows 8"၊ Business Line၊ Kasturi & Sons၊ June 1, 2012။ August 4, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  44. Rosoff၊ Matt။ "OK, So Windows 8 Is Coming To ARM Tablets...Someday (MSFT)"၊ January 5, 2011။ January 5, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  45. Sullivan၊ Mark။ Microsoft Announces New 'Surface' Tablet PC။ PCWorld။ June 19, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  46. ၄၆.၀ ၄၆.၁ Eichenwald, Kurt, "Microsoft's Lost Decade: How Microsoft Lost Its Mojo", Vanity Fair, August 2012
  47. Acohido၊ Byron။ "Microsoft buys Internet startup Yammer for $1.2 billion"၊ USA TodayGannett Company၊ June 25, 2012။ 25 June 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  48. Thurrott၊ Paul (31 July 2012)။ Outlook.com Mail: Microsoft Reimagines WebmailSupersite for WindowsPenton Media။ 1 August 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  49. Microsoft Corp. (8 August 2012)။ Windows Server 2012 "Save the Date" Announcement
  50. Rigby၊ Bill။ "Microsoft launching news operation, new MSN"၊ Reuters၊ October 1, 2012။ October 1, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  51. "Windows 8's delivery date: October 26"၊ July 18, 2012။ September 17, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  52. Mary Jo Foley: Windows Phone 8 launch date revealed။ LiveSide.net (2012-08-30)။ 2012-11-27 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  53. "Microsoft prepping for complete brand and product line relaunch, New York store coming the 26th"၊ wpcentral.com။ November 3, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  54. "Microsoft launches 'Patent Tracker' to help you search its library of intellectual property"၊ The Next Web၊ March 28, 2013။ March 29, 2013 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  55. David Pierce (21 May 2013)။ The all-seeing Kinect: tracking my face, arms, body, and heart on the Xbox OneThe Verge။ Vox Media, Inc။ 28 May 2013 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  56. Funky Friday: More than $32 billion in Microsoft stock value wiped out | Microsoft – CNET News။ News.cnet.com။ 2013-07-21 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  57. Microsoft buying Nokia's phone business in a $7.2 billion bid for its mobile future
  58. Microsoft names insider Amy Hood as CFO။ Reuters.com။ 2014-04-18 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  59. Samuel Gibbs။ "Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet"၊ 7 October 2013။ 8 October 2013 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  60. Microsoft's sweeping reorganization shifts focus to services, devices (July 11, 2013)။
  61. Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer to retire within 12 months
  62. It’s official: Microsoft acquires Mojang and Minecraft for $2.5 billion။ Ars Technica။ 19 September 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  63. Carter, Bill။ "Microsoft Quits MSNBC TV, but Web Partnership Remains"၊ The New York Times၊ December 24, 2005။ July 6, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  64. "Four Products Advance on Dynamics ERP Roadmap"၊ Directions on Microsoft၊ April 27, 2009။ July 3, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  65. Cha, Bonnie (September 1, 2010)။ Microsoft releases Windows Phone 7 to manufacturersCNET။ CBS Interactive။ September 7, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  66. MSDN Subscription FAQ။ Microsoft။ July 3, 2006 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  67. Microsoft Systems Journal Homepage။ Microsoft (April 15, 2004)။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  68. Hobson, Neville။ "Microsoft's Channel 9 And Cultural Rules"၊ WebProNews၊ iEntry Inc၊ April 11, 2005။ July 3, 2006 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  69. On10.net homepage။ Microsoft။ May 4, 2006 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  70. Bray, Hiawatha။ "Somehow, Usenet lumbers on"၊ The Boston Globe၊ June 13, 2005။ July 3, 2006 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
    * Microsoft MVP Frequently Asked Questions။ Microsoft။ July 1, 2006 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  71. CNET News.com Staff။ "Microsoft tests its own dog food"၊ ZDNet၊ CNET Networks, Inc.၊ July 21, 2003။ October 9, 2005 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။ Archived from the original on January 8, 2007။ 
  72. Heileman, John။ "The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But The Truth"၊ Wired၊ November 2000။ September 30, 2007 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  73. Poundstone, William။ "Square Manhole Covers and Crazy Questions"၊ G4TV.com၊ May 21, 2003။ July 1, 2006 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  74. Mark, Roy။ "Gates Rakes Congress on H1B Visa Cap"၊ internetnews.com၊ April 27, 2005။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  75. "Bill Gates Targets Visa Rules for Tech Workers"၊ NPR၊ March 12, 2008။ July 6, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  76. "Corporate Equality Index Archive"၊ Human Rights Campaign Foundation။ July 17, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  77. Writing history with Microsoft's Office lock-in
  78. Corporate Complicity in Chinese Internet Censorship။ 2006-11-23 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  79. "Who's buying Microsoft's outsourcing excuses?". InfoWorld. April 22, 2010.
  80. "Microsoft plans to outsource more, says ex-worker". The Seattle Times. September 3, 2005.
  81. "High-end tech jobs outsourced by Microsoft". Taipei Times. June 17, 2004.
  82. "Microsoft Investigates 'Mass Suicide Threat'". Sky News. January 11, 2012
  83. "Microsoft appoints activist investor Mason Morfit to board"၊ Reuters၊ March 11, 2014။ 
  84. "Microsoft Board of Directors". PressPass (Press release). Microsoft. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  85. Microsoft Corporation Corporate Governance Guidelines။ Microsoft (July 1, 2009)။ July 18, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  86. Five year history graph of (NASDAQ:MSFT) stockZenoBank။ AlphaTrade (September 29, 2009)။ September 29, 2009 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  87. Monkman, Carol Smith။ "Microsoft stock is red hot on first trading day"၊ Seattle Post-Intelligencer၊ Hearst Seattle Media, LLC၊ March 14, 1986၊ စာ- B9။ July 18, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  88. MSFT stock performance and split info။ Morningstar, Inc.။ July 17, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  89. ၈၉.၀ ၈၉.၁ Microsoft stock price spreadsheet from Microsoft investor relations (xls)။ Microsoft။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  90. ၉၀.၀ ၉၀.၁ Dividend Frequently Asked Questions။ Microsoft။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  91. Yahoo MSFT stock chart။ Yahoo Finance။ December 13, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
    * MSN Money MSFT chart with dividend and split infoMSN Money။ Microsoft။ December 13, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
    * Fried, Ina; Ard, Scott။ "Gates stepping down from full-time Microsoft role, page 2"၊ ZDNet၊ June 15, 2006။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  92. "U.S. v. Microsoft: We're Defending Our Right to Innovate"၊ The Wall Street Journal၊ May 20, 1998။ March 31, 2006 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။ Archived from the original on November 17, 2007။ 
  93. "Microsoft sells $2.25 billion of debt at low rates"၊ Reuters၊ February 4, 2011။ 
  94. Charles Arthur။ "Microsoft falls behind Apple for first time in 20 years | Technology"၊ London: The Guardian၊ April 28, 2011။ May 11, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  95. MG Siegler Apr 29, 2011 (April 29, 2011)။ When Will Microsoft's Internet Bloodbath End?။ Techcrunch.com။ May 11, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  96. White၊ Martha။ Microsoft reports first quarterly loss ever။ 20 July 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  97. Microsoft Overview။ Marketwatch။ 2 February 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  98. Global Top 100 Companies။ PWC။ 2 February 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  99. Microsoft Surpasses Exxon as 2nd Most Valuable Co.။ AssociatedPress။ 14 November 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  100. Dirty Data Report CardGreenpeace။ August 22, 2013 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  101. "Amazon, Microsoft: Let's keep 'the cloud' clean", Phil Radford
  102. "Microsoft looks to boost eco credentials with wind-powered data centre", Suzanne Goldenberg
  103. Ranking tables October 2010 – Greenpeace International။ Greenpeace International။ January 24, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  104. ၁၀၄.၀ ၁၀၄.၁ Mills, Elinor။ "Microsoft vs. Google: Who's greener?"၊ CNET၊ CBS Interactive၊ June 6, 2008။ July 3, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  105. Fostering Alternative Ways to Commute at Microsoft။ Microsoft။ Archived from the original on May 1, 2008။
  106. "Seattle hires consultant to look at 520 bridge plan"၊ King5 Television News၊ February 23, 2010။ July 3, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  107. Tu၊ Janet I.။ "Microsoft Pri0 | Microsoft named best multinational workplace"၊ Seattle Times Newspaper၊ October 28, 2011။ November 3, 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  108. Bishop, Todd။ "Studies on Linux help their patron: Microsoft"၊ Seattle Post-Intelligencer၊ Hearst Seattle Media, LLC၊ January 27, 2004။ July 16, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  109. Foley, Mary Jo။ "Yankee Independently Pits Windows TCO vs. Linux TCO"၊ eWeek၊ March 24, 2004။ July 14, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  110. Jaques, Robert။ "Linux fans hit back at Microsoft TCO claims"၊ vnunet.com၊ February 13, 2006။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  111. Rowena Mason။ "Seven-hour LSE blackout caused by double glitch"၊ London: The Telegraph၊ September 10, 2008။ 
  112. "London Stock Exchange trading hit by technical glitch"၊ BBC News၊ November 26, 2009။ 
  113. David M. Williams။ "London Stock Exchange gets the facts and dumps Windows for Linux"၊ ITWire၊ October 8, 2009။ 
  114. "London Stock Exchange Rejects .NET For Open Source"၊ Slashdot၊ October 6, 2009။ 
  115. "Microsoft Battles Google by Hiring Political Brawler Mark Penn"၊ The New York Times၊ December 14, 2012။ 
  116. Scroogled: Why So Negative, Microsoft?။ TechCrunch (2013-02-10)။ 2014-04-18 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  117. Kashmir Hill (November 21, 2013)။ Googlers Love Microsoft's 'Scroogled' Gear. Mug and Shirts Sell Out.Forbes
  118. Microsoft to cut up to 18,000 jobs over next year (July 17, 2014)။
  119. Microsoft Layoffs Greater Than Expected: Up to 18,000 Jobs Being Cut။ Gamespot။ 10 August 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  120. By Alex Wilhelm, TechCrunch. “Lays Off 2,100 More Employees.” September 18, 2014. September 18, 2014.
  121. "U.S. Agencies Said to Swap Data With Thousands of Firms"၊ Bloomberg 
  122. Ryan W. Neal။ "Snowden Reveals Microsoft PRISM Cooperation: Helped NSA Decrypt Emails, Chats, Skype Conversations"၊ International Business Times၊ July 11, 2013။ 
  123. NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and othersThe Guardian။ Guardian News and Media Limited (June 7, 2013)။ April 26, 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  124. Johnson, Kevin; Martin, Scott; O'Donnell, Jayne; Winter, Michael။ "Reports: NSA Siphons Data from 9 Major Net Firms"၊ USA Today၊ June 15, 2013။ June 6, 2013 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  125. "Microsoft, Facebook, Google and Yahoo release US surveillance requests"၊ The Guardian၊ February 3, 2014။ 
  126. Protecting customer data from government snooping (December 4, 2013)။ 1 January 2015 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  127. Advancing our encryption and transparency efforts (July 1, 2014)။ 1 January 2015 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  128. Request for Comment: Big Data and Consumer Privacy in the Internet Economy။ Microsoft။ 12 August 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  129. "{{{title}}}" (March 1987). 
  130. Osterman, Larry (July 14, 2005)။ Remember the blibbetLarry Osterman's WebLog။ Microsoft။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  131. ၁၃၁.၀ ၁၃၁.၁ "The Rise and Rise of the Redmond Empire"၊ Wired၊ December 1998။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  132. ၁၃၂.၀ ၁၃၂.၁ ၁၃၂.၂ Schmelzer, Randi။ "McCann Thinks Local for Global Microsoft"၊ Adweek၊ January 9, 2006။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  133. Reimer, Jeremy။ "Microsoft set to launch new marketing campaign"၊ Ars Technica၊ Condé Nast Digital၊ January 23, 2006။ August 18, 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 
  134. ၁၃၄.၀ ၁၃၄.၁ Topolsky၊ Joshua (July 22, 2010)။ New Microsoft brand logos, company tagline revealed at MGX event? (update: no new logos, tagline is a go)EngadgetAOL။ August 2, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  135. Meisner၊ Jeffrey (August 23, 2012)။ Microsoft Unveils a New Look။ The Official Microsoft Blog။ August 23, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  136. Eric၊ Steven H. (August 23, 2012)။ NEW MICROSOFT LOGO REVEALED။ Flapship.com။ August 23, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  137. Microsoft's new logo has ties to the past
  138. Microsoft's logo is not new, it's from 1995
  139. "Microsoft Unveils a New Look"၊ Microsoft၊ August 2012။ August 23, 2012 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး 

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