မွန်ထရီအော (Montreal) ရောက် အလက်ဇန်းဒါး ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ်၊ ၁၉၇၀
|မွေးဖွား||မတ် ၂၈၊ ၁၉၂၈|
ဘာလင် (Berlin)၊ ပရပ်ရှား (Prussia)၊ ဂျာမနီ (Germany)
|ဆုံးပါး||နိုဝင်ဘာ ၁၃၊ ၂၀၁၄ (အသက် ၈၆)|
စန်လီဇီရယ် (Saint-Lizier)၊ ပြင်သစ် (France)
|အဖွဲ့အစည်းဌာန||အဆင့်မြင့် သိပ္ပံလေ့လာရေး ဌာန (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS))|
မွန့်ပယ်လီရေ တက္ကသိုလ် (University of Montpellier)
နန်စီ တက္ကသိုလ် (University of Nancy)
|ပါရဂူဘွဲ့ ကြီးကြပ်သူများ||လောဟန် ရွှ (Laurent Schwartz)|
ရောန် ဒေဒိုနီ (Jean Dieudoné)
|ပါရဂူဘွဲ့ယူ တပည့်များ||ဖြဲ ဗြသူလူ (Pierre Berthelot)|
ကားလို့စ် ကွန်တိုး-ကရဲရေ (Carlos Contou-Carrere)
ဖြဲ ဒဲလိည (Pierre Deligne)
မီရှဲလ် ဒဲမဇူ (Michel Demazure)
ဖြဲ ဂဲဘိရယ် (Pierre Gabriel)
ရောန် ရီးဟို (Jean Giraud)
လုခ် အီလူစီ (Luc Illusie)
မီရှဲလ် ရေးနူ (Michel Raynaud)
ရောန်-လူဝီ ဗာ့ဒီ (Jean-Louis Verdier)
|ထင်ပေါ်ကြော်ကြား ဆုတံဆိပ်များ||၁၉၆၆ ဖီး ဆုတံဆိပ် (Fields Medal)|
၁၉၈၈ ခရက်ဖော့ဒ်ဆု (Crafoord Prize) (ဆုလက်မခံ)
အလက်ဇန်းဒါး ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ် (အင်္ဂလိပ်: Alexander Grothendieck, ဂျာမန်: [ˈɡroːtn̩diːk]; ပြင်သစ်: [ɡʁɔtɛndik]; မတ် ၂၈၊ ၁၉၂၈ – နိုဝင်ဘာ ၁၃၊ ၂၀၁၄ ) သည် ဂျာမနီနိုင်ငံတွင် ဖွားမြင်သည့် ပြင်သစ်လူမျိုး သင်္ချာပညာရှင် တစ်ဦးဖြစ်ပြီး၊ မျက်မှောက်ခေတ်သုံး အက္ခရာသင်္ချာနည်းကျ ဂျီဩမေတြီ (algebraic geometry) ဘာသာရပ်ကို ဦးဆောင် ပျိုးထောင်ခဲ့သူတစ်ဦး ဖြစ်သည်။ သူ၏ သုတေသန လုပ်ဆောင်ချက်များကြောင့် အက္ခရာသင်္ချာနည်းကျ ဂျီဩမေတြီ ဘာသာရပ်နယ်ပယ်မှာ တိုးပွားကျယ်ပြန့်လာပြီး၊ ၎င်းဘာသာရပ်၏ အခြေခံအုတ်မြစ်တွင် ပတ်လည်ညီ အက္ခရာသင်္ချာ (commutative algebra)၊ ဟိုမိုလော်ဂျစ်ကယ် အက္ခရာသင်္ချာ (homological algebra)၊ ကောက်လှိုင်းစည်း သီအိုရီ (sheaf theory) နှင့် ကတ်တဂိုရီ သီအိုရီ (category theory) တို့မှ အစိတ်အပိုင်းများကို ပေါင်းစပ်သုံးစွဲနိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ်၏ "နှိုင်းရ" ရှုမြင်ပုံ ("relative" perspective) သဘောတရားကြောင့်လည်း သင်္ချာသန့်သန့် ဘာသာရပ်နယ်ပယ် အများအပြားတွင် တဟုန်ထိုး တိုးတက်ပြောင်းလဲမှုများ ဖြစ်ပေါ်ခဲ့သည်။
ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ်ကို ဂျာမနီနိုင်ငံတွင် ဖွားမြင်ခဲ့သော်လည်း သူသည် ပြင်သစ်နိုင်ငံတွင် ကြီးပြင်းခဲ့ပြီး၊ ပြင်သစ်နိုင်ငံတွင်သာ အဓိက နေထိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ သို့သော် သူ၏ အလုပ်ဘဝ တလျောက်လုံးနီးပါးတွင် မည်သည့်နိုင်ငံ၏ နိုင်ငံသားမှ မဟုတ်ဘဲ နိုင်ငံမဲ့ (stateless) တစ်ဦးအဖြစ် လက်တွေ့နေထိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ သူသည် သူ၏ပထမနာမည် "အလက်ဇန်းဒါး" အား (ပြင်သစ်လူမျိုးများ သုံးလေ့ရှိသည့် စာလုံးပေါင်းအတိုင်း) "Alexandre" ဟု မပေါင်းဘဲ "Alexander" ဟုသာ အမြဲ ရေးတတ်ပြီး၊ မျိုးရိုးအမည်မှာလည်း သူ့မိခင်ဘက်မှ ဒတ်ခ်ျ (Dutch) ဆန်သည့် မြေနိမ့်ဂျာမန် (Low German) အမည် "ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ်" ကို ယူထားခြင်းဖြစ်ရာ သူ့ကို ဒတ်ခ်ျဇာတိဟု တခါတရံ ထင်မှတ်မှားတတ်ကြသည်။
ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ်သည် သူ၏ အောင်မြင်ကျော်ကြားလှသည့် သင်္ချာပညာရှင်ဘဝကို ၁၉၄၉ ခုနှစ်တွင် စတင်ခဲ့သည်။ သူသည် ၁၉၅၈ ခုနှစ်တွင် အဆင့်မြင့် သိပ္ပံလေ့လာရေး ဌာန (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS)) ၌ သုတေသန ပါမောက္ခအဖြစ် ခန့်အပ်ခြင်းခံရပြီး၊ ထိုဌာနတွင်ပင် ၁၉၇၀ ခုနှစ်အထိ ဆက်လက်လုပ်ကိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ သို့သော် ၎င်းဌာန၏ စစ်ဘက်နှင့် မကင်းသည့် ထောက်ပံ့ငွေကိစ္စ အငြင်းပွားမှု ဖြစ်ပြီးနောက်တွင် ကိုယ်ရေးကိုယ်တာနှင့် နိုင်ငံရေး ယုံကြည်ချက်များကြောင့် အလုပ်ထွက်ခဲ့သည်။ နောက်ပိုင်းတွင် မွန့်ပယ်လီရေ တက္ကသိုလ် (University of Montpellier) ၌ ပါမောက္ခလုပ်ခဲ့ပြီး သင်္ချာအလုပ်အချို့ကို တစ်ကိုယ်ရေ လုပ်ဆောင်ခဲ့သည်မှ အပ၊ သူသည် သင်္ချာအသိုင်းအဝိုင်းကို ဖယ်ကြဉ်၍ နိုင်ငံရေးကိစ္စများတွင်သာ နှစ်မြှုပ်နေထိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ်သည် ၁၉၈၈ ခုနှစ်၌ တရားဝင် အငြိမ်းစားယူပြီး၊ မကြာမီပင် ပီးရနေ (Pyrenees) တောင်တန်းဒေသသို့ ပြောင်ရွှေ့၍ တစ်ကိုယ်တည်း နေထိုင်ခဲ့ရာ ၂၀၁၄ ခုနှစ်တွင် ကွယ်လွန်သည်အထိ ဖြစ်သည်။
Family and childhood[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Grothendieck was born in Berlin to anarchist parents. His father, Alexander "Sascha" Schapiro (also known as Alexander Tanaroff), had Hassidic roots and had been imprisoned in Russia before moving to Germany in 1922, while his mother, Johanna "Hanka" Grothendieck, came from a Protestant family in Hamburg and worked as a journalist. Both had broken away from their early backgrounds in their teens. At the time of his birth, Grothendieck's mother was married to the journalist Johannes Raddatz and his birthname was initially recorded as "Alexander Raddatz". The marriage was dissolved in 1929 and Schapiro/Tanaroff acknowledged his paternity, but never married Hanka.
Grothendieck lived with his parents in Berlin until the end of 1933, when his father moved to Paris to evade Nazism, followed soon thereafter by his mother. They left Grothendieck in the care of Wilhelm Heydorn, a Lutheran pastor and teacher in Hamburg. During this time, his parents took part in the Spanish Civil War as non-combatants.
World War II[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
In 1939, Grothendieck went to France and lived with his mother in various camps for displaced persons. The first was the Camp de Rieucros; later, for the remainder of World War II, they lived in the village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, sheltered and hidden in local boarding-houses or pensions. His father was arrested and sent via Drancy to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he died in 1942. In Chambon, Grothendieck attended the Collège Cévenol (now known as the Le Collège-Lycée Cévenol International), a unique secondary school founded in 1938 by local Protestant pacifists and anti-war activists. Many of the refugee children hidden in Chambon attended Cévenol, and it was at this school that Grothendieck apparently first became fascinated with mathematics.
Studies and contact with research mathematics[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
After the war, the young Grothendieck studied mathematics in France, initially at the University of Montpellier where he did not initially perform well, failing such classes as astronomy. Working on his own, he rediscovered the Lebesgue measure. After three years of increasingly independent studies there he went to continue his studies in Paris in 1948.
Initially, Grothendieck attended Henri Cartan's Seminar at École Normale Supérieure, but lacked the necessary background to follow the high-powered seminar. On the advice of Cartan and André Weil, he moved to the University of Nancy where he wrote his dissertation under Laurent Schwartz and Jean Dieudonné in functional analysis, from 1950 to 1953. At this time he was a leading expert in the theory of topological vector spaces. By 1957, he set this subject aside in order to work in algebraic geometry and homological algebra.
In 1958 Grothendieck was installed at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS), a new privately funded research institute which in effect had been created for Jean Dieudonné and Grothendieck. Grothendieck attracted attention by an intense and highly productive activity of seminars there (de facto working groups drafting into foundational work some of the ablest French and other mathematicians of the younger generation). Grothendieck himself practically ceased publication of papers through the conventional, learned journal route. He was, however, able to play a dominant role in mathematics for around a decade, gathering a strong school.
During this time, he had officially as students Michel Demazure (who worked on SGA3, on group schemes), Luc Illusie (cotangent complex), Michel Raynaud, Jean-Louis Verdier (cofounder of the derived category theory) and Pierre Deligne. Collaborators on the SGA projects also included Mike Artin (étale cohomology) and Nick Katz (monodromy theory and Lefschetz pencils). Jean Giraud worked out torsor theory extensions of nonabelian cohomology. Many others were involved.
Alexander Grothendieck's work during the "Golden Age" period at the IHÉS established several unifying themes in algebraic geometry, number theory, topology, category theory and complex analysis. His first (pre-IHÉS) discovery in algebraic geometry was the Grothendieck–Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem, a generalisation of the Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem proved algebraically; in this context he also introduced K-theory. Then, following the programme he outlined in his talk at the 1958 International Congress of Mathematicians, he introduced the theory of schemes, developing it in detail in his Éléments de géométrie algébrique (EGA) and providing the new more flexible and general foundations for algebraic geometry that has been adopted in the field since that time. He went on to introduce the étale cohomology theory of schemes, providing the key tools for proving the Weil conjectures, as well as crystalline cohomology and algebraic de Rham cohomology to complement it. Closely linked to these cohomology theories, he originated topos theory as a generalisation of topology (relevant also in categorical logic). He also provided an algebraic definition of fundamental groups of schemes and more generally the main structures of a categorical Galois theory. As a framework for his coherent duality theory he also introduced derived categories, which were further developed by Verdier.
Politics and retreat from scientific community[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Grothendieck's political views were radical and pacifist. Thus, he strongly opposed both United States intervention in Vietnam and Soviet military expansionism. He gave lectures on category theory in the forests surrounding Hanoi while the city was being bombed, to protest against the Vietnam War. He retired from scientific life around 1970, after having discovered that the IHÉS was partly funded by the military. He returned to academia a few years later as a professor at the University of Montpellier.
While the issue of military funding was perhaps the most obvious explanation for Grothendieck's departure from the IHÉS, those who knew him say that the causes of the rupture ran deeper. Pierre Cartier, a visiteur de longue durée ("long-term guest") at the IHÉS, wrote a piece about Grothendieck for a special volume published on the occasion of the IHÉS's fortieth anniversary. The Grothendieck Festschrift, published in 1990, was a three-volume collection of research papers to mark his sixtieth birthday in 1988.
In it, Cartier notes that as the son of an antimilitary anarchist and one who grew up among the disenfranchised, Grothendieck always had a deep compassion for the poor and the downtrodden. As Cartier puts it, Grothendieck came to find Bures-sur-Yvette "une cage dorée" ("a golden cage"). While Grothendieck was at the IHÉS, opposition to the Vietnam War was heating up, and Cartier suggests that this also reinforced Grothendieck's distaste at having become a mandarin of the scientific world. In addition, after several years at the IHÉS, Grothendieck seemed to cast about for new intellectual interests. By the late 1960s, he had started to become interested in scientific areas outside mathematics. David Ruelle, a physicist who joined the IHÉS faculty in 1964, said that Grothendieck came to talk to him a few times about physics.[n ၁] Biology interested Grothendieck much more than physics, and he organized some seminars on biological topics.
In 1970, Grothendieck, with two other mathematicians, Claude Chevalley and Pierre Samuel, created a political group called Survivre—the name later changed to Survivre et vivre. The group published a bulletin and was dedicated to antimilitary and ecological issues, and also developed strong criticism of the indiscriminate use of science and technology. Grothendieck devoted the next three years to this group and served as the main editor of its bulletin.
After leaving the IHÉS, Grothendieck became a temporary professor at Collège de France for two years. He then became a professor at the University of Montpellier, where he became increasingly estranged from the mathematical community. His mathematical career, for the most part, ended when he left the IHÉS. He formally retired in 1988, a few years after having accepted a research position at the CNRS.
Manuscripts written in the 1980s[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
While not publishing mathematical research in conventional ways during the 1980s, he produced several influential manuscripts with limited distribution, with both mathematical and biographical content.
Produced during 1980 and 1981, La Longue Marche à travers la théorie de Galois (The Long March Through Galois Theory) is a c. 1600-page handwritten manuscript containing many of the ideas that led to the တမ်းပလိတ်:Padr. It also includes a study of Teichmüller theory.
In 1983, stimulated by correspondence with Ronald Brown and Tim Porter at the Bangor University, Grothendieck wrote a c. 600-page manuscript titled Pursuing Stacks, starting with a letter addressed to Daniel Quillen. This letter and successive parts were distributed from Bangor (see External links below). Within these, in an informal, diary-like manner, Grothendieck explained and developed his ideas on the relationship between algebraic homotopy theory and algebraic geometry and prospects for a noncommutative theory of stacks. The manuscript, which is being edited for publication by G. Maltsiniotis, later led to another of his monumental works, Les Dérivateurs. Written in 1991, this latter opus of about 2000 pages further developed the homotopical ideas begun in Pursuing Stacks. Much of this work anticipated the subsequent development of the motivic homotopy theory of Fabien Morel and V. Voevodsky in the mid-1990s.
In 1984, Grothendieck wrote the proposal တမ်းပလိတ်:Padr ("Sketch of a Programme") for a position at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). It describes new ideas for studying the moduli space of complex curves. Although Grothendieck himself never published his work in this area, the proposal inspired other mathematicians' work by becoming the source of dessin d'enfant theory and Anabelian geometry. It was later published in the two-volume Geometric Galois Actions (Cambridge University Press, 1997).
In the 1000-page autobiographical manuscript Récoltes et semailles (1986) Grothendieck describes his approach to mathematics and his experiences in the mathematical community, a community that initially accepted him in an open and welcoming manner but which he progressively perceived to be governed by competition and status. He complains about what he saw as the "burial" of his work and betrayal by his former students and colleagues after he had left the community. Récoltes et semailles work is now available on the internet in the French original, and an English translation is underway. Parts of Récoltes et semailles have been translated into Spanish and into Russian and published in Moscow.
In 1988 Grothendieck declined the Crafoord Prize with an open letter to the media. He wrote that established mathematicians like himself had no need for additional financial support and criticized what he saw as the declining ethics of the scientific community, characterized by outright scientific theft that, according to him, had become commonplace and tolerated. The letter also expressed his belief that totally unforeseen events before the end of the century would lead to an unprecedented collapse of civilization.
La Clef des Songes, a 315-page manuscript written in 1987, is Grothendieck's account of how his consideration of the source of dreams led him to conclude that God exists. As part of the notes to this manuscript, Grothendieck described the life and word of 18 "mutants", people whom he admired as visionaries far ahead of their time and heralding a new age. The only mathematician on his list was Bernhard Riemann. Influenced by the Catholic mystic Marthe Robin who was claimed to survive on the Holy Eucharist alone, Grothendieck almost starved himself to death in 1988. His growing preoccupation with spiritual matters was also evident in a letter entitled Lettre de la Bonne Nouvelle sent to 250 friends in January 1990. In it, he described his encounters with a deity and announced that a "New Age" would commence on 14 October 1996.
Over 20,000 pages of Grothendieck's mathematical and other writings, held at the University of Montpellier, remain unpublished.
Retirement into reclusion and death[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
In 1991, Grothendieck moved to a new address which he did not provide to his previous contacts in the mathematical community. Very few people have visited him since. After his death, it was revealed that he lived alone in a house in Lasserre, Ariège, a small village at the foot of the Pyrenees.
In January 2010, Grothendieck wrote the letter "Déclaration d'intention de non-publication" to Luc Illusie, claiming that all materials published in his absence have been published without his permission. He asks that none of his work be reproduced in whole or in part and that copies of this work be removed from libraries. A website devoted to his work was called "an abomination". This order may have been reversed later in 2010.
Grothendieck was born in Weimar Germany. In 1938, aged ten, he moved to France as a refugee. Records of his nationality were destroyed in the fall of Germany in 1945 and he did not apply for French citizenship after the war. He thus became a stateless person for at least the majority of his working life, traveling on a Nansen passport. Part of this reluctance to hold French nationality is attributed to not wishing to serve in the French military, particularly due to the Algerian War (1954–62). He applied for French citizenship in the early 1980s.
Grothendieck was very close to his mother to whom he dedicated his dissertation. She died in 1957. He had five children: a son with his landlady during his time in Nancy, three children with his wife Mireille Dufour (born 1959, 1961, and 1965), and one child with Justine Skalba, with whom he lived in a commune in the early 1970s.
Grothendieck's early mathematical work was in functional analysis. Between 1949 and 1953 he worked on his doctoral thesis in this subject at Nancy, supervised by Jean Dieudonné and Laurent Schwartz. His key contributions include topological tensor products of topological vector spaces, the theory of nuclear spaces as foundational for Schwartz distributions, and the application of Lp spaces in studying linear maps between topological vector spaces. In a few years, he had turned himself into a leading authority on this area of functional analysis—to the extent that Dieudonné compares his impact in this field to that of Banach.
It is, however, in algebraic geometry and related fields where Grothendieck did his most important and influential work. From about 1955 he started to work on sheaf theory and homological algebra, producing the influential "Tôhoku paper" (Sur quelques points d'algèbre homologique, published in the Tohoku Mathematical Journal in 1957) where he introduced abelian categories and applied their theory to show that sheaf cohomology can be defined as certain derived functors in this context.
Homological methods and sheaf theory had already been introduced in algebraic geometry by Jean-Pierre Serre and others, after sheaves had been defined by Jean Leray. Grothendieck took them to a higher level of abstraction and turned them into a key organising principle of his theory. He shifted attention from the study of individual varieties to the relative point of view (pairs of varieties related by a morphism), allowing a broad generalization of many classical theorems. The first major application was the relative version of Serre's theorem showing that the cohomology of a coherent sheaf on a complete variety is finite-dimensional; Grothendieck's theorem shows that the higher direct images of coherent sheaves under a proper map are coherent; this reduces to Serre's theorem over a one-point space.
In 1956, he applied the same thinking to the Riemann–Roch theorem, which had already recently been generalized to any dimension by Hirzebruch. The Grothendieck–Riemann–Roch theorem was announced by Grothendieck at the initial Mathematische Arbeitstagung in Bonn, in 1957. It appeared in print in a paper written by Armand Borel with Serre. This result was his first work in algebraic geometry. He went on to plan and execute a programme for rebuilding the foundations of algebraic geometry, which were then in a state of flux and under discussion in Claude Chevalley's seminar; he outlined his programme in his talk at the 1958 International Congress of Mathematicians.
His foundational work on algebraic geometry is at a higher level of abstraction than all prior versions. He adapted the use of non-closed generic points, which led to the theory of schemes. He also pioneered the systematic use of nilpotents. As 'functions' these can take only the value 0, but they carry infinitesimal information, in purely algebraic settings. His theory of schemes has become established as the best universal foundation for this field, because of its expressiveness as well as technical depth. In that setting one can use birational geometry, techniques from number theory, Galois theory and commutative algebra, and close analogues of the methods of algebraic topology, all in an integrated way.
He is also noted for his mastery of abstract approaches to mathematics and his perfectionism in matters of formulation and presentation. Relatively little of his work after 1960 was published by the conventional route of the learned journal, circulating initially in duplicated volumes of seminar notes; his influence was to a considerable extent personal. His influence spilled over into many other branches of mathematics, for example the contemporary theory of D-modules. (It also provoked adverse reactions, with many mathematicians seeking out more concrete areas and problems.)
EGA, SGA, FGA[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
The bulk of Grothendieck's published work is collected in the monumental, yet incomplete, Éléments de géométrie algébrique (EGA) and Séminaire de géométrie algébrique (SGA). The collection Fondements de la Géometrie Algébrique (FGA), which gathers together talks given in the Séminaire Bourbaki, also contains important material.
Grothendieck's work includes the invention of the étale and l-adic cohomology theories, which explain an observation of André Weil's that there is a connection between the topological characteristics of a variety and its diophantine (number theoretic) properties. For example, the number of solutions of an equation over a finite field reflects the topological nature of its solutions over the complex numbers. Weil realized that to prove such a connection one needed a new cohomology theory, but neither he nor any other expert saw how to do this until such a theory was found by Grothendieck.
This program culminated in the proofs of the Weil conjectures, the last of which was settled by Grothendieck's student Pierre Deligne in the early 1970s after Grothendieck had largely withdrawn from mathematics.
Major mathematical topics (from Récoltes et Semailles)[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Grothendieck wrote a retrospective assessment of his mathematical work (see the external link La Vision below). As his main mathematical achievements ("maître-thèmes"), he chose this collection of 12 topics (his chronological order):
- Topological tensor products and nuclear spaces
- "Continuous" and "discrete" duality (derived categories and "six operations")
- Yoga of the Grothendieck–Riemann–Roch theorem (K-theory, relation with intersection theory)
- Étale cohomology including l-adic cohomology
- Motives and the motivic Galois group (and Grothendieck categories)
- Crystals and crystalline cohomology, yoga of De Rham and Hodge coefficients
- Topological algebra, infinity-stacks, 'dérivateurs', cohomological formalism of toposes as an inspiration for a new homotopic algebra
- Tame topology
- Yoga of anabelian geometry and Galois–Teichmüller theory
- Schematic point of view, or "arithmetics" for regular polyhedra and regular configurations of all sorts.
He wrote that the central theme of the topics above is that of topos theory, while the first and last were of the least importance to him.
By the 1970, Grothendieck's work was seen as influential not only in algebraic geometry, and the allied fields of sheaf theory and homological algebra, but had had an impact on logic, in the field of categorical logic.
Grothendieck approached algebraic geometry by clarifying the foundations of the field, and by developing mathematical tools intended to prove a number of notable conjectures. Algebraic geometry has traditionally meant the understanding of geometric objects, such as algebraic curves and surfaces, through the study of the algebraic equations for those objects. Properties of algebraic equations are in turn studied using the techniques of ring theory. In this approach, the properties of a geometric object are related to the properties of an associated ring. The space (e.g., real, complex, or projective) in which the object is defined is extrinsic to the object, while the ring is intrinsic.
Grothendieck laid a new foundation for algebraic geometry by making intrinsic spaces ("spectra") and associated rings the primary objects of study. To that end developed the theory of schemes, which can be informally thought of as topological spaces on which a commutative ring is associated to every open subset of the space. Schemes have become the basic objects of study for practitioners of modern algebraic geometry. Their use as a foundation allowed geometry to absorb technical advances from other fields.
His generalization of the classical Riemann-Roch theorem related topological properties of complex algebraic curves to their algebraic structure. The tools he developed to prove this theorem started the study of algebraic and topological K-theory, which study the topological properties of objects by associating them with rings. Topological K-theory was founded by Michael Atiyah, after direct contact with Grothendieck's ideas at the Bonn Arbeitstagung.
Grothendieck's construction of new cohomology theories, which use algebraic techniques to study topological objects, has influenced the development of algebraic number theory, algebraic topology, and representation theory. As part of this project, his creation of topos theory, a category-theoretic generalization of point-set topology, has influenced the fields of set theory and mathematical logic.
The Weil conjectures were formulated in the later 1940s as a set of mathematical problems in arithmetic geometry. They describe properties of analytic invariants, called local zeta functions, of the number of points on an algebraic curve or variety of higher dimension. Grothendieck's discovery of the ℓ-adic étale cohomology, the first example of a Weil cohomology theory, opened the way for a proof of the Weil conjectures, ultimately completed in the 1970s by his student Pierre Deligne. Grothendieck's large-scale approach has been called a "visionary program". The ℓ-adic cohomology then became a fundamental tool for number theorists, with applications to the Langlands program.
Grothendieck's conjectural theory of motives was intended to be the "ℓ-adic" theory but without the choice of "ℓ", a prime number. It did not provide the intended route to the Weil conjectures, but has been behind modern developments in algebraic K-theory, motivic homotopy theory, and motivic integration. This theory, Daniel Quillen's work, and Grothendieck's theory of Chern classes, are considered the background to the theory of algebraic cobordism, another algebraic analogue of topological ideas.
Grothendieck's emphasis on the role of universal properties across varied mathematical structures brought category theory into the mainstream as an organizing principle for mathematics in general. Among its uses, category theory creates a common language for describing similar structures and techniques seen in many different mathematical systems. His notion of abelian category is now the basic object of study in homological algebra. The emergence of a separate mathematical discipline of category theory has been attributed to Grothendieck's influence, though unintentional.
- Cartier 2004, p. 10, footnote 12.
- Kleinert 2007.
- Douroux 2012.
- Scharlau 2008.
- Jackson, Allyn (2004), "Comme Appelé du Néant — As If Summoned from the Void: The Life of Alexandre Grothendieck II" (PDF), Notices of the American Mathematical Society 51 (10)
- "Alexander Grothendieck, Math Enigma, Dies at 86"၊ The New York Times၊ November 14, 2014။
- "Alexander Grothendieck (1928–2014) Mathematician who rebuilt algebraic geometry" (2015). Nature 517 (7534): 272–272. doi:10.1038/517272a. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Cartier 2004, p. 9.
- Cartier 2001, p. 391, footnote 3.
- Ruelle 2007, p. 40.
- Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
- Jackson, Allyn (2004), "Comme Appelé du Néant — As If Summoned from the Void: The Life of Alexandre Grothendieck I" (PDF), Notices of the American Mathematical Society 51 (4)
- Scharlau (2008), p. 931
- Alexandre Grothendieck, ou la mort d'un génie qui voulait se faire oublier (in French)။ Libération Sciences (13 November 2014)။ 14 November 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- See Jackson (2004:1).
- Pierre Cartier, Luc Illusie, Nicholas M. Katz, Gérard Laumon, Yuri I. Manin (2007). "Foreword", The Grothendieck Festschrift, Volume I: A Collection of Articles Written in Honor of the 60th Birthday of Alexander Grothendieck။
- "Book Reviews : Topological vector spaces, by A. Grothendieck" (July 1976). Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (Volume 82, Number 4).
- Cartier 2004.
- Amir D. Aczel (2009). The Artist and the Mathematician. Basic Books။
- Joseph Lipman (2009). "Notes on derived categories and Grothendieck duality", Foundations of Grothendieck Duality for Diagrams of Schemes, Lecture Notes in Math., no. 1960. New York: Springer-Verlag။
- The Life and Work of Alexander Grothendieck, American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 113, no. 9, footnote 6.
- SGA1, Springer Lecture Notes 224, p. xii, xiii
- The editors were Pierre Cartier, Luc Illusie, Nick Katz, Gérard Laumon, Yuri Manin, and Ken Ribet. A second edition has been printed (2007) by Birkhauser.
- Allyn Jackson, The IHÉS at Forty, Notices of the AMS, March 1999, pp. 329-337.
- Pragacz 2005.
- Alexandre Grothendieck, Esquisse d'un Programme, English translation
- (ပြင်သစ်) Alexander Grothendieck, "Récoltes et sémailles, Réflexions et témoignage sur un passé de mathématicien."
- Récoltes et Semailles; La Clef des Songes (in es)။
- (ရုရှား) http://www.mccme.ru/free-books/grothendieck/RS.html
- Crafoord Prize letter, English translation at the Wayback Machine (archived ဇန်နဝါရီ ၆, ၂၀၀၆)
- Scharlau 2008, p. 940.
- Scharlau, Winfried, Die Mutanten – Les Mutants – eine Meditation von Alexander Grothendieck (in German)
- (ပြင်သစ်) Le trésor oublié du génie des maths
- "Alexandre Grothendieck, le plus grand mathématicien du XXe siècle, est mort"၊ Le Monde၊ November 14, 2014။
- Alexander Grothendieck - obituary
- Cartier 2001.
- Dieudonné 1990
- See, for example, Deligne 1998.
- Mclarty၊ Colin။ The Rising Sea: Grothendieck on simplicity and generality I (PDF)။ 13 January 2008 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Peck, Morgen, Equality of Mathematicians,
Alexandre Grothendieck is arguably the most important mathematician of the 20th century...
- Leith, Sam (20 March 2004), "The Einstein of maths", The Spectator,
[A] mathematician of staggering accomplishment ... a legendary figure in the mathematical world.
- at p. 2.
- (2012) Sets and Extensions in the Twentieth Century. Elsevier, 733. ISBN 978-0-444-51621-3။
- Miles Reid (15 December 1988). Undergraduate Algebraic Geometry. Cambridge University Press, 115. ISBN 978-0-521-35662-6။
- တမ်းပလိတ်:Hartshorne AG
- Michael Atiyah (3 April 2014). Michael Atiyah Collected Works: Volume 7: 2002-2013. Oxford University Press, 383–. ISBN 978-0-19-968926-2။
- Saunders Mac Lane and Ieke Moerdijk (1992) Sheaves in Geometry and Logic: a First Introduction to Topos Theory. Springer Verlag.
- (6 October 2012) The Mathematical Legacy of Srinivasa Ramanujan. Springer Science & Business Media, 156–. ISBN 978-81-322-0769-6။
- R. P. Langlands, Modular forms and l-adic representations, Lecture Notes in Math. 349. (1973), 361—500
- J.S. Milne (1980). Étale cohomology. Princeton University Press။
- (23 February 2007) Algebraic Cobordism. Springer Science & Business Media, viii. ISBN 978-3-540-36824-3။
- (1988) Methods of homological algebra. Springer။
- Ralph Krömer (25 June 2007). Tool and Object: A History and Philosophy of Category Theory. Springer Science & Business Media, 158–. ISBN 978-3-7643-7524-9။
Sources and other references[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
- Cartier, Pierre (1998), "La folle journée, de Grothendieck à Connes et Kontsevich — Évolution des notions d'espace et de symétrie", Les relations entre les mathématiques et la physique théorique — Festschrift for the 40th anniversary of the IHÉS, Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, pp. 11–19
- Cartier, Pierre (2004), "Un pays dont on ne connaîtrait que le nom (Grothendieck et les " motifs ")", in Cartier, Pierre; Charraud, Nathalie, Réel en mathématiques-psychanalyse et mathématiques (in French), Editions Agalma, English translation: A country of which nothing is known but the name: Grothendieck and "motives" .
- Deligne, Pierre (1998), "Quelques idées maîtresses de l'œuvre de A. Grothendieck", Matériaux pour l'histoire des mathématiques au XXe siècle – Actes du colloque à la mémoire de Jean Dieudonné (Nice 1996), Société Mathématique de France, pp. 11–19
- Dieudonné, Jean Alexandre (1990), "De L'analyse fonctionelle aux fondements de la géométrie algébrique", in Cartier, Pierre et al., The Grothendieck Festschrift, Volume 1, Birkhäuser, pp. 1–14, ISBN 978-0-8176-4566-3
- Douroux၊ Philippe (2012-02-08)။ Alexandre Grothendieck (in French)။ 2014-04-02 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Jackson, Allyn (2004), "Comme Appelé du Néant — As If Summoned from the Void: The Life of Alexandre Grothendieck I" (PDF), Notices of the American Mathematical Society 51 (4): 1038–1056
- Jackson, Allyn (2004), "Comme Appelé du Néant — As If Summoned from the Void: The Life of Alexandre Grothendieck II" (PDF), Notices of the American Mathematical Society 51 (10): 1196–1212
- Pragacz, Piotr (2005), "Notes on the life and work of Alexander Grothendieck", in Pragracz, Piotr, Topics in Cohomological Studies of Algebraic Varieties: Impanga Lecture Notes, Birkhäuser
- Rehmeyer, Julie (9 May 2008), "Sensitivity to the Harmony of Things", Science News
- Ruelle, David (2007), The Mathematician's Brain, Princeton University Press
- Scharlau, Winfried, Wer ist Alexander Grothendieck?: Anarchie,Mathematik, Spiritualität Three-volume biography, first volume available in English, ISBN 3842340923.
- Kleinert, Werner (2007). "Wer ist Alexander Grothendieck? Anarchie, Mathematik, Spiritualität. Eine Biographie. Teil 1: Anarchie." (in German).
- Scharlau, Winfried (September 2008), written at Oberwolfach, Germany, "Who is Alexander Grothendieck ?" (PDF), Notices of the American Mathematical Society (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) 55 (8): 930–941, ISSN 1088-9477, OCLC 34550461, retrieved 1 September 2011
- Schneps, Leila, ed. (2014), Alexandre Grothendieck: A Mathematical Portrait, Somerville Massachusetts: International Press of Boston, Inc., ISBN 978-1-57146-282-4
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- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "မင်းသန့်/သဲပုံ/အလက်ဇန်းဒါး ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ်", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- မင်းသန့်/သဲပုံ/အလက်ဇန်းဒါး ဂရိုသန်ဒိခ် at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Grothendieck Circle, collection of mathematical and biographical information, photos, links to his writings
- Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques
- The origins of `Pursuing Stacks' This is an account of how `Pursuing Stacks' was written in response to a correspondence in English with Ronnie Brown and Tim Porter at Bangor, which continued until 1991. See also Alexander Grothendieck: some recollections.
- Récoltes et Semailles in French.
- "Récoltes et Semailles" et "Le Clef des Songes", French originals and Spanish translations
- English summary of "Le Clef des Songes"
- Video of a lecture with photos from Grothendieck's life, given by Winfried Scharlau at IHES in 2009
- Can one explain schemes to biologists —biographical sketch of Grothendieck by David Mumford & John Tate