ချန်ဆားမြို့

ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား မှ
(ချောင်ရှားမြို့ မှ ပြန်ညွှန်းထားသည်)
ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​
ချန်ဆားမြို့
长沙市
စီရင်စုနယ်အဆင့်မြို့
ချန်ဆားမြို့
ချန်ဆားမြို့
ချန်ဆားမြို့ is located in ဟူနန်ပြည်နယ်
ချန်ဆားမြို့
ဟူနန်ပြည်နယ်တွင်း ချန်ဆားမြို့တည်နေရာ
ကိုဩဒိနိတ်: 28°11′46″N 112°58′20″E / 28.19611°N 112.97222°E / 28.19611; 112.97222
နိုင်ငံ  တရုတ်ပြည်
ပြည်နယ် ဟူနန်ပြည်နယ်
County-level division
မြို့နယ် ၁၇၂
အစိုးရ
 • ပါတီအတွင်းရေးမှူး Yi Lianhong
 • မြို့တော်ဝန် Hu Henghua
ဧရိယာ
 • စီရင်စုနယ်အဆင့်မြို့ ၁၁၈၁၉ စတုရန်းကီလိုမီတာ (၄၅၆၃ စတုရန်းမိုင်)
ပင်လယ်ရေ မျက်နှာပြင်အမြင့် ၆၃ မီတာ (၂၀၈ ပေ)
လူဦးရေ (၂၀၁၀ သန်းခေါင်စာရင်း)
 • စီရင်စုနယ်အဆင့်မြို့ ၇,၀၄၄,၁၁၈
 • သိပ်သည်းမှု ၆၀၀/km (၁၅၀၀/sq mi)
 • မြို့ပေါ် ၃,၆၁၇,၄၆၉
 • တရုတ်နိုင်ငံတွင်းအဆင့် ၁၉
 • မြို့တော်လူမျိုးများ ဟန် - ၉၉.၂၂%
အခြား - ၀.၇၈%
အချိန်ဇုန် တရုတ်စံတော်ချိန် (UTC+8)
စာပို့သင်္ကေတ 410000
ဧရိယာကုဒ်(များ) ၀၇၃၁
GDP ၂၀၁၄[၁]
 - စုစုပေါင်း CNY ၇၈၁ ဘီလီယံ
(USD ၁၂၅.၈ ဘီလီယံ)
 - per capita CNY ၁၀၈,၁၇၂
(USD ၁၇,၄၀၇)
GDP တိုးတက်မှုနှုန်း Increase ၁၀.၅%
ယာဉ်လိုင်စင်အမှတ် 湘A
湘O (ရဲနှင့် အာဏာပိုင်)
ISO 3166-2 cn-43-01
ဝက်ဘ်ဆိုဒ် www.changsha.gov.cn
မြို့တော်သစ်ပင်: Camphor; မြို့တော်ပန်း: Azalea

Changsha (simplified Chinese: 长沙; traditional Chinese: 長沙; pinyin: Chángshā; Wade–Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, in south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. Its municipality covers an area of 11,819 sq. kilometers and, according to the 2010 Census, a population of 7,044,118 inhabitants.[၂]

Changsha was important from the time of the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC). In AD 750–1100 Changsha was an important commercial city, and its population increased greatly. Under the Qing dynasty, from 1664, it was the capital of Hunan province, and it was a major rice market. It was besieged during the Taiping Rebellion but never fell. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism. It was the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45 and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Rebuilt since 1949, the city is now a major interior port and a commercial and industrial center.

Etymology[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The origins of the name "Changsha" are lost in antiquity. The name first appears in the 11th century BC, during the reign of King Cheng of the Zhou dynasty, a vassal lord from the Changsha area sent a type of softshell turtle known as "Changsha softshell turtle" (Chinese: 长沙鼈) as tribute to the Zhou king. In the 2nd century AD, historian Ying Shao wrote that the Qin dynasty use of the name Changsha for the area was a continuance of its old name.[၃]

ရာဇဝင်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ဘီစီ ၁ ရာစုတွင် ချန်ဆားမြို့သည် ယန်စီမြစ်တောင်ပိုင်း ချူနိုင်ငံ၏ဗဟိုချက်မဖြစ်ခဲ့သည်။ ၁၉၃၅-၃၆ ခုနှစ်များတွင် ချူခေတ်သင်္ချိုင်းများတူးဖော်တွေ့ရှိမှုများသည် ချူခေတ်ယဉ်ကျေးမှု၏အရေးကြီးပုံရိပ်များ(ဥပမာအားဖြင့် ချူခေတ်ပိုးထည်များရှိ ရှေးဟောင်းလက်ရေးများ) ကို ဖော်ထုတ်ပေးခဲ့သည်။ ချန်ဆားမြို့ကို ပြည်ထောင်ချင်းစစ်ပွဲများခေတ် စာအုပ်များတွင် တခါတရံ ချင်းယန် (Chinese: 青陽) မြို့ဟုလည်းခေါ်ကြသည်။

ချင်မင်းဆက် (ဘီစီ ၂၂၁-၂၀၆) လက်ထက်တွင် ချန်ဆားမြို့သည် ကွမ်တုံပြည်နယ်သို့ စူးစမ်းလေ့လာရာ စခန်းထောက်ဖြစ်ခဲ့သည်။ ဘီစီ ၂၀၂ တွင် ခံတပ်မြို့ဖြစ်လာခဲ့သည်။ ဟန်မင်းဆက် လက်ထက်တွင် ဟန်မင်းဆက်အား ပဏ္ဏာဆက်ရသော ချန်ဆားဘုရင့်နိုင်ငံ၏မြို့တော် ဖြစ်လာခဲ့သည်။

ဟန်ခေတ်(ဘီစီ ၂၀၆-အေဒီ ၂၂၀)မှစ၍ လင်ရှန်ခရိုင်ဟု အမည်တွင်ပြီး ချန်ဆားတိုင်း ရုံးစိုက်ရာမြို့ ဖြစ်ခဲ့သည်။ အေဒီ ၅၈၉ တွင် တန်ဒေသ၏ရုံးစိုက်ရာဖြစ်ခဲ့ပြီး ချန်ဆားမြို့ဟု ပြောင်းလဲမှည့်ခေါ်ခဲ့သည်။ It lost some importance at this period, however, because traffic from Guangdong was mostly diverted up the Gan River valley in Jiangxi.

စစ်ဖြစ်ပွားနေသောတိုင်းပြည်များခေတ် သင်္ချိုင်းဂူတစ်ခုမှတွေ့ရှိရသော နဂါးစီးလုလင်ရုပ်ကြွ

ခမ်းနားစွာစီမံထားသော ဟန်မင်းဆက်၊ မာဝမ်တွေ့(Mawangdui) အုတ်ဂူများအား ဘီစီ ၁၈၆ နှင့် ၁၆၅ ကြားကာလများတွင် ဆောက်လုပ်ခဲ့သည်။ အစောဆုံးအုတ်ဂူဖြစ်သည့် ဂူအမှတ်-၂ ကို ၁၉၇၀တွင် တူးဖော်ခဲ့ရာ ရှင်ကြွေ(Xin Zhui)အမည်ရှိ အမျိုးသမီး၏အလောင်းကို အံ့ဩဖွယ် ကောင်းမွန်သောအနေအထားဖြင့် တွေ့မြင်ရသည်။ ဂူအတွင်းတွင် တောက်တယ်ကျင်း (Dao De Jing) (道德经)ခေါ် တာအိုဝါဒဆိုင်ရာ ရှေးဟောင်းကျမ်းစာတစ်စောင်ကိုလည်း အခြားသမိုင်းဝင်ပစ္စည်းများကြားတွင် တွေ့ခဲ့ရသည်။ သုံးပြည်ထောင်ခေတ်တွင် ချန်ဆားမြို့သည် Changsha was a much-fought-over territory. During the Sui Dynasty, Changsha was a county and under the Tang it was known as Tanzhou.

တန်မင်းဆက် (အေဒီ ၆၁၈-၉၀၇) ပျက်သုန်းပြီးနောက် ချန်ဆားမြို့သည် လွတ်လပ်သော ချူနိုင်ငံ၏မြို့တော် ဖြစ်ခဲ့သည်။ ထို့နောက် တန်မင်းဆက်(အေဒီ ၉၂၃-၉၃၇) လက်အောက်သို့ ကျရောက်ခဲ့သည်။ အေဒီ ၇၅၀နှင့် ၁၁၀၀ ကြားကာလများတွင် ချန်ဆားသည် ကူးသန်းရောင်းဝယ်ရေးမြို့တော်ဖြစ်ခဲ့ပြီး လူဦးရေလည်း ဆယ်ဆခန့် တိုးတက်လာခဲ့သည်။ မင် (၁၃၆၈-၁၆၄၄)နှင့် ချင်မင်းဆက်(၁၆၄၄-၁၉၁၁/၁၂)လက်ထက်များတွင် ချန်ဆားသည် it was made a superior prefecture and from 1664 onward was the capital of Hunan and prospered as one of China's chief rice markets. During the Taiping Rebellion the city was besieged by the rebels (1854) but never fell; it then became the principal base for the suppression of the rebellion. Changsha was opened to foreign trade in 1904. Further development followed the opening of the railway to Hankou in Hubei province in 1918, which was extended to Guangzhou in Guangdong province in 1936. Although Changsha's population grew, the city remained primarily commercial in character and before 1937 had little industry, apart from some small cotton-textile, glass, and nonferrous-metal plants and handicraft enterprises.

Yuelu Academy (岳麓书院) was founded in AD 976 (Song Dynasty), destroyed by war in 1127, and rebuilt in 1165 (Southern Song Dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi (朱熹) taught at the Academy in 1165. It was destroyed by the Mongols but was restored in the late 15th century (Ming Dynasty). In 1903 it became Hunan High School. The modern day Hunan University is a descendant of the academy. The architecture of some of the buildings was restored from 1981–1986, presumably according to the Song design.

In 1852 the Taiping forces laid a siege on Changsha, through 3 months, the Taiping gave up offensive and toward Wuhan.( Battle of Changsha (1852) )

The 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between the Qing Dynasty and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University bachelors, and later became a medical center named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School.

တရုတ်ပြည်သူ့သမ္မတနိုင်ငံကို တည်ထောင်သူ မော်စီတုံးသည် နိုင်ငံရေးဘဝကို ချန်ဆားတွင် အစပြုခဲ့သည်။ မော်သည် ဟူနန်ဆရာအတတ်သင်ကျောင်းတွင် ၁၉၁၃ မှ ၁၉၁၈ ထိ ပညာသင်ယူခဲ့သည်။ ထိုနောက် ကျောင်းဆရာဖြစ်လာပြီး ၁၉၂၀ မှ ၁၉၂၂ ကာလတွင် ကျောင်းအုပ်ကြီးဖြစ်လာခဲ့သည်။ အဆိုပါကျောင်းသည် တရုတ်ပြည်တွင်းစစ် ( Chinese Civil War)ကာလတွင် ပျက်စီးခဲ့သော်လည်း ပြန်လည်တည်ဆောက်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ တစ်ချိန်က မော်စီတုံးနေထိုင်ခဲ့သည့် ဟူနန်ပြည်နယ် ကွန်မြူနစ်ပါတီဗဟိုကော်မတီ၏ ယခင်ရုံးဟောင်းသည် ယခုအခါတွင် မော်စီတုံးပြတိုက်အဖြစ် ထားရှိပြီး မော်စီတုံး၏အသုံးအဆောင်ပစ္စည်းများကို ပြသထားသည်။

Till May 1927, communist support remained strong in Changsha before the massacre carried out by the right-wing faction of the KMT troops owing allegiance to Chiang Kai-shek in its offensive against the left-wing faction of Wang Jingwei then allied closely with the communists. The purge of communists and suspected communists was part of Chiang's plans to consolidate his hold over the KMT weakening Wang's control, and thereby over entire China eventually. In a period of twenty days, Chiang's forces killed more than ten thousand people in Changsha and its outskirts.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), the strategic location of Changsha made it the focus of four campaigns by the Japanese to capture it from the hands of the Chinese Nationalists which resulted in the battles of 1st Changsha, 2nd Changsha, 3rd Changsha, and 4th Changsha. The city was able to repulse the first three attacks thanks to Xue Yue's leadership, but ultimately fell for a short time into Japanese hands in 1944 for another year until they were defeated in a counterattack and forced to surrender.[၄] The city itself was virtually destroyed by fire in 1938–39.

The city later became the territory of the People's Republic of China when it was formed in 1949 after the Kuomintang were driven to Taiwan.

ပထဝီအနေအအထား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Xiang River and Changsha's riverbank at night (2005)
Baisha Well park

Template:Climate chart

Changsha is located between 111° 53'–114° 5' E longitude and 27° 51'–28° 40' N latitude, situated in east central Hunan. Its terrain is high in the west and low in the east. There are many mountainous areas in the west and in the north. The Xiang River flows south to northwest; 296 m high Mt. Yuelushan is in the west; and Liuyanghe River (Liuyang River) and Laodaohe River (Laodao River) east.

ရာသီဥတု[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with annual average temperature being ၁၇.၀ °C (၆၂.၆ °F), with a mean of ၄.၆ °C (၄၀.၃ °F) in January and ၂၉.၀ °C (၈၄.၂ °F) in July. Average annual precipitation is ၁,၃၃၀ millimetres (၅၂ in), and the yearly frost-free period is 275 days.

The four seasons are distinct. The summers are long and hot, with heavy rainfall, and autumn is comfortable with abundant sunlight. Winter is comparatively dry (but somewhat damp and overcast) and rather brief, but cold snaps occur with temperatures occasionally dropping below freezing.

Changsha neighboring areas include: Jiangxi province, cities and counties of Hunan, such as Tonggu County, Wanzai County, Yichun City, Pingxiang City of Jiangxi province. Pingjiang County, Miluo city, Xiangyin County of Yueyang; Heshan District, Taojiang County, Anhua County of Yiyang; Lianyuan city of Loudi; Zhuzhou County, Liling City of Zhuzhou; Xiangtan County, Xiangxiang city of Xiangtan.

Template:Weather box

အုပ်ချုပ်ရေး[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

မြို့တော်အုပ်ချုပ်ရေး

The city of Changsha has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu), 1 county-level cities (市 shi), and 2 counties (县 xian) :

Subdivisions of Changsha-China.png Subdivision Pop. Area Dens.
English Simplified Traditional Pinyin 2010 km² /km²
Changsha City Proper
Furong District 芙蓉区 芙蓉區 Fúróng Qū 523,730 42 12,470
Tianxin District 天心区 天心區 Tiānxīn Qū 475,663 74 6,428
Yuelu District 岳麓区 嶽麓區 Yuèlù Qū 801,861 552 1,453
Kaifu District 开福区 開福區 Kāifú Qū 567,373 187 3,034
Yuhua District 雨花区 雨花區 Yǔhuā Qū 725,353 114 6,363
Changsha suburban and rural
Wangcheng District 望城区 望城區 Wàngchéng Qū 523,489 970 540
Liuyang City 浏阳市 瀏陽市 Liúyáng Shì 1,278,928 4,999 256
Changsha County 长沙县 長沙縣 Chángshā Xiàn 979,665 1,997 491
Ningxiang County 宁乡县 寧鄉縣 Níngxiāng Xiàn 1,168,056 2,906 402

Transportation[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

High-speed train's Changsha South Railway Station

Changsha is well connected by roads, river, rail, and air transportation modes, and is a regional hub for industrial, tourist, and service sectors.

အများပြည်သူသုံးယာဉ်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The city's public transportation system consists of an extensive bus network with over a hundred lines as well as taxis.

မြေအောက်ရထား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha Metro is planning a 6 line network. The first two lines under construction are planned to open in 2015. Line 1 will run from north to south and Line 2 from west to east.

လမ်းများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

National Highways 107 and 319, as well as Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Express Way connect the Changsha metro area nationally. There are three main bus terminals in Changsha: South Station, East Station and West Station, dispatching long- and short-haul trips to cities within and outside Hunan Province.

မြစ်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha is surrounded by major rivers, including the Xiangjiang, the Liuyanghe, and the Laodaohe. Ships transport mainly goods from Xianing port located in North Changsha domestically and internationally.

ရထားလမ်းများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ချန်ဆားဘူတာကြီး သည် မြို့လယ်ခေါင်တွင်တည်ရှိပြီး အခြားမြို့ကြီးများနှင့်အမြန်ရထားများ၊ ရိုးရိုးရထားခရီးစဉ်များပြေးဆွဲလျက်ရှိသည်။ . ချန်ဆားတောင်ပိုင်းဘူတာကြီး သည် ကျည်ဆံရထားများပြေးဆွဲသည့် ဘူတာကြီးဖြစ်သည်။ The Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway (part of the planned Beijing -> Hong Kong high speed rail) stops here. The Shanghai-Changsha-Kunming high-speed railway is currently under construction.

လေကြောင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha Huanghua International Airport is a regional hub for China Southern Airlines, which serves major cities in China, including Hong Kong. Other major airlines also provide daily service between Changsha and other domestic and international destinations.The airport provides direct flights to 45 major cities such as HongKong, Bangkok, Seoul, Pusan, Osaka and etc. In 2011 the airport handled 13,810,000 people.

စီးပွားရေး[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The Huángxīng Lù Pedestrian Street in Changsha (2006)
The business quarter

Changsha's population nearly tripled between the start of its rebuilding in 1949 and the early 1980s. The city is now a major port, handling rice, cotton, timber, and livestock, and is also a collection and distribution point on the railway from Hankou to Guangzhou. It is a centre of rice milling and also has oil-extraction, tea- and tobacco-curing, and meat-processing plants. Its textile industry produces cotton yarn and fabrics and engages in dyeing and printing. Agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, farm implements, and pumping machinery are also produced.

ချန်ဆားမြို့တွင် ဓာတ်အားစနစ်နှင့်ချိတ်ဆက်ထားသော အပူသုံးဓာတ်အားပေးစက်ရုံကြီးရှိပြီး အနီးရှိ ကျူကျိုးစက်မှုဇုံနှင့် ရှန်ထန်စက်မှုဇုံများသို့ ဓာတ်အားပေးလျက်ရှိသည်။ the three cities were designated in the 1970s as the nucleus of a major industrial complex. In the 1960s there was some development of heavy industry. The manufacture of machinery, especially machine tools and precision tools, became important, and Changsha became a center of China's aluminum industry. The city also has cement, rubber, ceramic, and papermaking plants and is a centre for many types of traditional handicrafts, producing hsiang embroidery, leather goods, umbrellas, and buttons. Coal is mined in the vicinity.

ချန်ဆားသည် တရုတ်နိုင်ငံ၏ စီးပွားရေးထိပ်တန်းမြို့ကြီး ၂၀ တွင် တစ်ခုအပါအဝင်ဖြစ်သည်။ ၂၀၀၈ တွင် ချန်ဆား၏ ဂျီဒီပီမှာ ¥၃၀၀.၁ ဘီလျံ(US$၄၃ဘီလျံ)ရှိခဲ့ပြီး တစ်နှစ်ထက်တစ်နှစ်တိုးတက်မှုမှာ ၁၅.၁%ဖြစ်သည်။ Its per capita GDP was ¥45,765 (US$6,589).[၅] Its GDP grew at an average of 14% per year from 2001 to 2005, compared to the national average of 9% in the period. As of 2005, the service sector generated roughly around 49% Changsha's GDP, up 112% from 2001 figures, and it is expected to continue driving the city's economic growth. Leading to a disposable income for urban residents of 12,343 RMB annually.[၆] The manufacturing and construction sectors have grown relatively steadily, growing 116% during 2001-2005. The primary sector, including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, has grown slightly over this same period. In addition, the consumer market has grown dramatically with income levels. With a minimum salary level of 600 RMB per month in comparison to Beijing 640 RMB or Shanghai at 750 RMB per month.[၇] Urban residents in 2005 had average income of about USD 1,500, 15% higher than national average, and up 10% from 2001 figures.[၈]

Changsha has attracted a substantial level of foreign investment. In 2005, for example, nearly USD 1 billion worth of foreign direct investment (FDI) poured into the city, mainly in hi-tech, manufacturing, food production, and services. This figure is up 40% from 2001. 59% of the total FDI has come from Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Japan; 28% has come from the Americas and 9% from Europe.[၉] By the end of 2008 more than 500 foreign companies had made over USD 10 million worth of investments in Changsha.[၁၀] Changsha had total retail sales of 74 RMB billion in 2006.[၁၁]

Rapid economic growth has made environmental pollution a serious problem in Changsha, caused by rapidly increasing numbers of private cars, widespread construction sites, and numerous industrial facilities on the outskirts of the city.

Broad Sustainable Building company (that owning the technology of rapid construction of buildings) intends to build in Changsha at few months in 2013 the Sky City, new world's tallest skyscraper having 838 meters height and 220 floors.

Lugu Hi-tech industry Development Zone

Changsha National Economic and Technical Development Zone[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is located east of Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6sqkm and the current area is 14sqkm. Near the zone is National Highways G319 and G107 as well as Jingzhu Highway. Besides that, it is very close to the downtown and the railway station. The distance between the zone and the airport is 8 km. The major industries in the zone include high-tech industry, biology project technology and new material industry.[၁၂]

ယာဉ်ကျေးမှုနှင့်အားကစား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ချန်ဆားမြို့ရှိဟူနန်ပြည်နယ်ပြတိုက်
ထောက်ကုန်းဘုရားကျောင်း
လုရှန်းဘုရားကျောင်း

In recent years, Changsha has become an important creative center for TV and entertainment arts, with its many TV stations producing some of the most popular programs in China, including Super Girl. These programs have also brought a new entertainment industry, including singing bars, dance clubs, theater shows, as well as related businesses like hair salons, fashion stores, and hot spicy snacks at night(esp. in the summer time). While Changsha has developed into an entertainment hub the city has also become increasingly westernized and attracted a growing number of foreigners.

Changsha is home to the Lei Feng Memorial (雷锋纪念馆) and statue.

In May 2008, the BBC broadcast, as part of its Storyville documentary series, the four-part The Biggest Chinese Restaurant in the World, explores the inner workings of the 5000-seat capacity West Lake Restaurant (Xihu Lou Jiujia) located in Changsha.

Changhsa has one of China's largest multi-purpose Helong Stadium for 55,000 people.

ပညာရေး[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

တက္ကသိုလ်နှင့်ကောလိပ်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha was the seat of many ancient schools and academies.[၁၃] It is the site of Hunan Medical University (1914) and has several colleges and institutes of higher learning.

National

Public

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

Notable high schools[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Notable people[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha is the birthplace of:

Associated people[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Sister cities and friendship cities[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha has city partnerships with the following cities and regions:

Astronomy[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Changsha was represented by the star Zeta Corvi in a Chinese constellation.[၁၄]

ကြည့်ရန်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

မှီငြမ်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  1. You must specify title = and url = when using {{cite web}}.။
  2. (တရုတ်) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  3. Zhongguo gujin diming dacidian 中国古今地名大词典 [Dictionary of Chinese Place-names Ancient and Modern] (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe, 2005), 505.
  4. (1998) in Gregor Benton: Chen Duxiu's last articles and letters, 1937-1942, illustrated, University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824821122. Retrieved on 2012 March 2. “24. Xi'an never fell. As for Changsha, Chinese under the Guonaindang General Xue Yue successfully defended the city three times against the Japanese; Changsha (and the vital Guangzhou-Hankou Railway) did not fall to the Japanese until early 1945.” 
  5. Changsha Statistical Yearbook 2007
  6. China Briefing. China Briefing. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  7. China Briefing Changsha Report. China-briefing.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  8. Changsha Statistical Yearbook 2005
  9. cs_report60_enw.indd. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  10. Changsha Economic Data and News. The China Perspective. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  11. China Business News. China-Briefing. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  12. Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  13. Yeulu Academy, Changsha. Dm.hnu.cn. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  14. Star Name - R.H. Allen p.182. Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.

ပြင်ပချိတ်ဆက်ရန်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]