စက်ခါရော့ဗ်ဆု

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​

စက်ခါရော့ဗ် လွတ်လပ်စွာ စဉ်းစားတွေးခေါ်မှု ဆု(Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought) သည် ဆိုဗီယက်ပြည်ထောင်စုတွင် နေထိုင်သည့် သိပ္ပံပညာရှင် အန္ဒရေး စက်ခါရော့ဗ်၏ အမည်အား ဂုဏ်ပြုထားခြင်းဖြစ်ပြီး၊ ၁၉၈၈ ခုနှစ် ဒီဇင်ဘာလမှစတင်၍ ဥရောပသမဂ္ဂ မှ လူ့အခွင့်အရေး နှင့် လွတ်လပ်စွာတွေးခေါ်နိုင်ရန် အင်တိုက်အားတိုက် လုပ်ဆောင်ကြသည့် ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်များ၊ အဖွဲ့အစည်းများကို ဂုဏ်ပြုနိုင်ရန် ပေးအပ်သည့် ဆုဖြစ်သည်။[၁]

ဆုရရှိနိုင်သည့် အမည်များကို လျာထားပြီးနောက် ဥရောပသမဂ္ဂ နိုင်ငံခြားရေးရာ ကော်မတီ နှင့် တိုးတက်ဖွဲ့ဖြိုးရေး ကော်မတီတို့မှ နှစ်စဉ် အောက်တိုဘာလတွင် ဆုရရှိသူအမည်ကို ထုတ်ဖော်ကြေညာလေ့ရှိသည်။[၂]၂၀၁၀ခုနှစ်အရ၊ ဆု နှင့် ဆုကြေးတန်ဖိုးမှာ ယူရိုငွေ ၅၀ ၀၀၀ ဖြစ်သည်။[၂]

ဆုရရှိခဲ့သူများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Nelson Mandela was the inaugural winner of the prize, together with Anatoly Marchenko.
Year Recipient Nationality Notes Reference
1988 Mandela, NelsonNelson Mandela တောင်အာဖရိကနိုင်ငံ၏ အလံတော် တောင်အာဖရိက Anti-apartheid activist and later President of South Africa [၃]
1988 Marchenko, AnatolyAnatoly Marchenko (posthumously) Soviet Union Soviet dissident, author and humans rights activist [၃]
1989 Dubček, AlexanderAlexander Dubček Czechoslovakia Slovak politician, attempted to reform the communist regime during the Prague Spring [၃]
1990 အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည် မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ၏ အလံတော် မြန်မာ Opposition politician and a former General Secretary of the National League for Democracy [၄]
1991 Demaçi, AdemAdem Demaçi Kosovo Politician and long-term political prisoner [၃]
1992 Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo အာဂျင်တီးနားနိုင်ငံ၏ အလံတော် အာဂျင်တီးနား Association of Argentine mothers whose children disappeared during the Dirty War [၄]
1993 Oslobođenje Bosnia and Herzegovina Popular newspaper, continued to publish after its office building was destroyed in Sarajevo [၄]
1994 Nasrin, TaslimaTaslima Nasrin Bangladesh Ex-doctor, feminist author [၄]
1995 Zana, LeylaLeyla Zana တူရကီနိုင်ငံ၏ အလံတော် တူရကီ A female politician of Kurdish descent from Eastern Turkey, who was imprisoned for 10 years for speaking her native language of Kurdish in the Turkish Parliament [၃]
1996 Jingsheng, WeiWei Jingsheng တရုတ်ပြည်သူ့သမ္မတနိုင်ငံ၏ အလံတော် တရုတ်ပြည် An activist in the Chinese democracy movement [၄]
1997 Ghezali, SalimaSalima Ghezali Algeria Journalist and writer, an activist of women's rights, human rights and democracy in Algeria [၄]
1998 Rugova, IbrahimIbrahim Rugova Kosovo Albanian politician, the first President of Kosovo [၃]
1999 Gusmão, XananaXanana Gusmão East Timor Former militant who was the first President of East Timor [၅]
2000 Template:Sort စပိန်နိုင်ငံ၏ အလံတော် စပိန် Organisation uniting individuals of various political positions against terrorism [၆]
2001 Peled-Elhanan, NuritNurit Peled-Elhanan Israel Peace activist [၃]
2001 Ghazzawi, IzzatIzzat Ghazzawi Palestine Writer, arrested several times by Israeli authorities for "political activities" [၃]
2001 Kamwenho, Dom ZacariasDom Zacarias Kamwenho Angola Archbishop and peace activist [၃]
2002 Payá, OswaldoOswaldo Payá Cuba Political activist and dissident [၇]
2003 Annan, KofiKofi Annan (& United Nations) Nobel Peace Prize recipient and seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations [၃]
2004 Belarusian Association of Journalists Belarus Non-governmental organisation "aiming to ensure freedom of speech and rights of receiving and distributing information and promoting professional standards of journalism" [၈]
2005 Ladies in White Cuba Opposition movement, relatives of jailed dissidents [၉]
2005 Reporters Without Borders France-based non-governmental organisation advocating freedom of the press [၉]
2005 Ibrahim, HauwaHauwa Ibrahim Nigeria Human rights lawyer [၉]
2006 Milinkievič, AlaksandarAlaksandar Milinkievič Belarus Politician chosen by United Democratic Forces of Belarus as the joint candidate of the opposition in the presidential elections of 2006 [၁၀]
2007 Mahmoud Osman, SalihSalih Mahmoud Osman Sudan Human rights lawyer [၄]
2008 Jia, HuHu Jia တရုတ်ပြည်သူ့သမ္မတနိုင်ငံ၏ အလံတော် တရုတ်ပြည် Activist and dissident [၁၁]
2009 Memorial Russia International civil rights and historical society [၁၂]
2010 Fariñas, GuillermoGuillermo Fariñas Cuba Doctor, journalist and political dissident [၁၃]
2011 Asmaa Mahfouz,
Ahmed al-Senussi,
Razan Zaitouneh,
Ali Farzat,
Mohamed Bouazizi (posthumously)
Egypt
Libya
Syria
Syria
Tunisia
Five representatives of the Arab people, in recognition and support of their drive for freedom and human rights. [၁၄]

ကိုးကား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  1. "1986: Sakharov comes in from the cold", BBC News, 23 December 1986. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named official
  3. ၃.၀ ၃.၁ ၃.၂ ၃.၃ ၃.၄ ၃.၅ ၃.၆ ၃.၇ ၃.၈ ၃.၉ 20 years of the Sakharov Prize: Human rights and reconciliation. European Parliament (28 October 2008). Retrieved on 22 October 2010
  4. ၄.၀ ၄.၁ ၄.၂ ၄.၃ ၄.၄ ၄.၅ ၄.၆ Sakharov Network calls for immediate release of Aung San Suu Kyi, Sakharov Prize laureate 1990. Reporters Without Borders (15 May 2009). Retrieved on 23 October 2010
  5. "Gusmão receives EU Sakharov prize", BBC News, 15 December 1999. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  6. "Basque group wins peace prize", BBC News, 26 October 2000. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  7. "Cuban dissident collects EU prize", BBC News, 17 December 2002. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  8. Europeans Honor Belarusian Association of Journalists. United States Department of State (9 November 2004). Retrieved on 22 October 2010
  9. ၉.၀ ၉.၁ ၉.၂ Gibbs, Stephen. "Cuba 'bars women from prize trip'", BBC News, 14 December 2005. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  10. "Belarussian takes EU rights award", BBC News, 26 October 2006. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  11. "China dissident wins rights prize", BBC News, 17 December 2008. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  12. "Russia rights group wins EU prize", BBC News, 22 October 2009. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  13. "Cuba dissident Farinas awarded Sakharov Prize by EU", BBC News, 21 October 2010. Retrieved on 21 October 2010. 
  14. Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought 2011. European Parliament. Retrieved on 27 October 2011