ချန်အဲ ၁ လကမ္ဘာလေ့လာရေးယာဉ်

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​
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Chang'e 1
Chang e 1.jpg
Operator China National Space Administration (CNSA)
Mission type Orbiter / impactor
Satellite of The Moon
Launch date 2007-10-24, 10:05:04.602 UTC
Carrier rocket Long March 3A
Launch site Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Launch Pad 3
Xichang, The People's Republic of China
Mission duration Intended: 1 year
Actual: 2007-10-24, 10:05:04 UTC to 2009-03-01, 08:13:10 UTC
1 year, 4 months, 4 days, 22 hours and 7 minutes
COSPAR ID 2007-051A
Homepage CLEP
Mass 2,350 kg
Orbital elements
Inclination ~64°
Apoapsis ~200 km
Periapsis ~200 km
Orbital period ~127 minutes
References: [၁][၂]

ချန်အဲ ၁ (pronounced roughly chang-uh, Template:IPA-cmn; Template:Zh) အာကာသယာဉ်သည် တရုတ်နိုင်ငံကပစ်လွှတ်သော လပတ်လူမဲ့စက်ရုပ်အာကာသယာဉ်ဖြစ်သည်။ တရုတ်လလေ့လာရေးအစီအစဉ်၏အစိတ်အပိုင်းတစ်ခုဖြစ်သည်။ အာကာသယာဉ်အမည်မှာ တရုတ်လနတ်သမီး ချန်အဲကို အမှီပြုပြီးမှည့်ခေါ်ထားခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။ ချန်အဲ ၁ အား ၂၀၀၇ခုနှစ်၊ အောက်တိုဘာ ၂၄တွင် ရှီးချန်ဂြိုဟ်တုလွှတ်တင်ရေးဌာနမှလွှတ်တင်ခဲ့သည်။ [၃] It left lunar transfer orbit on 31 October and entered lunar orbit on 5 November.[၄] လ၏ပထမဆုံးဓာတ်ပုံများကို ၂၀၀၇၊ နိုဝင်ဘာ၂၆ တွင် စတင်ရရှိခဲ့သည်။ [၅] ၂၀၀၈၊ နိုဝင်ဘာ ၁၂ တွင် လမျက်နှာပြင်တစ်ခုလုံးအား မြေပုံထုတ်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ [၆][၇]

ခရီးစဉ်သည်တစ်နှစ်The mission was scheduled to continue for a year, but was later extended and the spacecraft operated until 1 March 2009, when it was taken out of orbit. It impacted the surface of the Moon at 08:13 UTC.[၂] Data gathered by Chang'e 1 was able to create the most accurate and highest resolution 3-D map ever created of the lunar surface.[၈] Moreover, Chang'e 1 is the first lunar probe to conduct passive, multi-channel, microwave remote sensing of the moon by using microwave radiator.[၉]

ယင်း၏အမြွှာညီမဖြစ်သော ချန်အဲ ၂ လပတ်ယာဉ်အား ၂၀၁၀၊ အောက်တိုဘာလအစပိုင်းတွင်လွှတ်တင်ခဲ့သည်။ [၁၀]

ရည်မှန်းချက်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ချန်အဲခရီးစဉ်တွင် အဓိကရည်မှန်းချက် ၄ ခုရှိသည်။ [၇][၁၁]

  1. လမျက်နှာပြင် ဘူမိတည်ဆောက်ပုံနှင့်မြေပြင်အနေအထားတို့အား သုံးဖက်မြင်ပုံများရယူပြီး အနာဂတ်လပေါ်ငြိမ့်ညောင်းစွာဆင်းသက်ရန်အတွက် မှီငြမ်းမှုပြုခြင်း။ ချန်အဲ ၁ ၏ လပတ်လမ်းThe orbit of Chang'e 1 around the Moon was designed to provide complete coverage, including areas near the north and south poles not covered by previous missions.
  2. Analysing and mapping the abundance and distribution of various chemical elements on the lunar surface as part of an evaluation of potentially useful resources on the Moon. China hopes to extend the number of elements studied to 14 (potassium (K), thorium (Th), uranium (U), oxygen (O), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), tellurium (Te), titanium (Ti), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and lanthanum (La)),[၁၂] compared with the 10 elements (K, U, Th, Fe (iron), Ti, O, Si, Al, Mg, and Ca)[၁၃] previously probed by NASA's Lunar Prospector.
  3. Probing the features of the lunar soil and assessing its depth, as well as the amount of helium-3 (³He) present.[၁၂]
  4. Probing the space environment between 40,000 km and 400,000 km from the Earth, recording data on the solar wind and studying the impact of solar activity on the Earth and the Moon.

In addition, the lunar probe engineering system, composed of five major systems – the satellite system, the launch vehicle system, the launch site system, the monitoring and control system and the ground application system – accomplished five goals:

  • Researching, developing and launching China's first lunar probe
  • Mastering the basic technology of placing satellites in lunar orbit
  • Conducting China's first scientific exploration of the Moon
  • Initially forming a lunar probe space engineering systemTemplate:Clarify me
  • Accumulating experience for the later phases of China's lunar exploration program

ခရီးစဉ်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

File:The launch of Change 1, Xichang Satellite Center, China.jpg
ရှီးချန်ဂြိုဟ်တုလွှတ်တင်ရေးစခန်းတွင် ချန်အဲ ၁ ယာဉ်အားလွှတ်တင်နေပုံ

According to the schedule, detailed design of the first program milestone was completed by September 2004. Research and development of a prototype probe and relevant testing of the probe were finished before the end of 2005. Design, manufacture, general assembly, test and ground experiments of the lunar orbiter were finished before December 2006.

Originally scheduled for April 2007, the launch was postponed until October as this was "a better time for sending a satellite into the Moon's orbit".[၁၄] Chang'e 1 was launched by a Long March 3A rocket at 10:05 GMT on October 24, 2007 from Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan Province.

After liftoff, Chang'e 1 made three orbits around the Earth, a burn at perigee extending the orbit's apogee further each time, until a final translunar injection burn placed it on course for the Moon on October 31, 2007. Another burn placed it in a polar orbit around the Moon, with burns at the perilune of the first three orbits decreasing the apolune until it entered a final circular orbit. Lunar orbit insertion was achieved on the November 5, 2007. To mark this occasion, the probe transmitted 30 classical Chinese songs and musical pieces, including "My Motherland", "The Song of the Yangtze River", and "High Mountains and Flowing Water".

The probe was remotely controlled from stations at Qingdao and Kashgar, as the first use of the Chinese Deep Space Network. The ESA Maspalomas Tracking Station was also used to transmit signals to and from the probe.

The first pictures of the Moon were relayed on November 26, 2007. The probe was designed to orbit the Moon for one year,[၁၂] but operations were later extended, and it remained in lunar orbit until March 1, 2009.

ခရီးစဉ်ပြီးဆုံးခြင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

၂၀၀၉ခုနှစ်၊ မတ်လ ၁ရက်နေ့တွင် ချန်အဲ ၁ သည် လမျက်နှာပြင်သို့ဝင်တိုက်ပြီး ခရီးစဉ်ပြီးဆုံးခဲ့သည်။ According to the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (China), this was a planned and controlled impact.[၁၅] Impact point was 1°30′S 52°22′E / 1.50°S 52.36°E / -1.50; 52.36.[၁၆][၁၇][၁၈] During its orbital mission the probe transmitted 1,400 gigabits or 175 gigabytes (GB) of data.

ဒီဇိုင်းနှင့်တပ်ဆင်ခြင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ချန်အဲ ၁ အာကာသယာဉ်သည် ၂၃၅၀ ကီလိုလေးပြီး ဝန် ၁၃၀ ကီလိုသယ်ဆောင်နိုင်သည်။ Charge-coupled device (CCD)၊ စတီရီယိုကင်မရာ၊ မိုက္ကရိုထောက်တံကိရိယာများ၊ စွမ်းအင်မြင့်နေအမှုန်အာရုံခံကိရိယာများအပါအဝင် ကိရိယာ ၂၄ မျိုးတင်ဆောင်သွားသည်။

  • Stereo camera with an optical resolution of 120 m and spectrometer imager operating at wavelengths of 0.48 µm to 0.96 µm. (created the most accurate and highest resolution 3-D map ever of the lunar surface)[၈]
  • Laser altimeter with 1064 nm, 150 mJ laser, a range resolution of 1 m and a spot size of 300 m.
  • Imaging spectrometer
  • Gamma and X-ray spectrometer working in an energy range of 0.5 to 50 keV for X-rays and 300 keV to 9 MeV for gamma rays.
  • Microwave radiometer detecting 3, 7.8, 19.35 and 37 GHz with a maximal penetration depth of 30, 20, 10, 1 m and a thermal resolution of 0.5 K. (conducted the first passive, multi-channel, microwave remote sensing of the moon in the world)[၉]

ကြည့်ရန်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

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မှီငြမ်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

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  2. ၂.၀ ၂.၁ Guodong, Du (2009-03-01). China's lunar probe Chang'e-1 impacts Moon. Xinhua. Retrieved on 2009-03-01
  3. China's 1st Moon orbiter enters Earth orbit. Xinhua News Agency (October 24, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-24
  4. http://www.efluxmedia.com/news_Chinas_Change_I_Enters_Moon_Orbit_10279.html
  5. Template:Citeweb
  6. China publishes first map of whole lunar surface (12 November 2008). Retrieved on 2008-11-12
  7. ၇.၀ ၇.၁ Chang’E-1 Lunar Mission: An Overview and Primary Science Results (PDF).
  8. ၈.၀ ၈.၁ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/LD16Ad01.html
  9. ၉.၀ ၉.၁ https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/c-missions/chang-e-1
  10. http://www.bbc.co.uk/zhongwen/simp/china/2010/10/101001_china_satellite_moon.shtml
  11. Chang'e-1 - new mission to Moon lifts off. European Space Agency. Retrieved on 2007-10-24
  12. ၁၂.၀ ၁၂.၁ ၁၂.၂ Sūn Huīxiān (孙辉先), Dài Shùwǔ (代树武), Yáng Jiànfēng (杨建峰), Wú Jì (吴季) and Jiāng Jǐngshān (姜景山) (2005). "Scientific objectives and payloads of Chang'E-1 lunar satellite" (PDF). Journal of Earth System Science 114 (6): 789–794. doi:10.1007/BF02715964. Bibcode2005JESS..114..789H. 
  13. D. J. Lawrence, * W. C. Feldman, B. L. Barraclough, A. B. Binder, R. C. Elphic, S. Maurice, D. R. Thomsen (1998). "Global Elemental Maps of the Moon: The Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer". Science 281 (5382): 1484–1489. doi:10.1126/science.281.5382.1484. PMID 9727970. Bibcode1998Sci...281.1484L. 
  14. Chang'e-1 Satellite Launch Delayed. China Radio International (March 15, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-24
  15. "China lunar probe mission ends with planned crash", The Associated Press. Retrieved on 2009-03-02. Archived from the original on 2009-03-04. 
  16. NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Chang'e 1. Retrieved on 2011-01-01
  17. China People's Daily Online, 2 March 2009 - Chang'e-1 impacts Moon (coordinates). Retrieved on 2011-01-01
  18. "Smackdown", Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 March 2009, p. 16. Retrieved on 2010-05-01. 

ပြင်ပချိတ်ဆက်ရန်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Template:Moon spacecraft Template:Chinese satellites Template:CLEP Template:Orbital launches in 2007