ဆလီနီအာကာသယာဉ်

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​
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Template:About

Kaguya (かぐや?) (SELENE)
File:Kaguya mark.jpg
Operator JAXA
Major contractors NEC Toshiba Space Systems
Mission type Orbiter
Satellite of The Moon
Launch date 2007-09-14, 01:31:01 UTC
Carrier rocket H-IIA
COSPAR ID 2007-039A
Homepage SELENE page
Mass includeonly>၂၉၁၄ kilograms (includeonly>၆၄၂၀ lb) (Main Orbiter, launch mass)
Power 3,486 W
Orbital elements
Inclination 90°
Apoapsis Template:Convert/km
Periapsis Template:Convert/km
Orbital period 2h

ဂျပန်နိုင်ငံတွင် ဒဏ္ဍာရီလာ လနတ်သမီးအမည်ဖြစ်သော ကာဂူယာ (かぐや?)ဟူသော နာမည်ပြောင်ဖြင့်လူသိများသည့် ဆလီနီ (Template:IPAc-en; Selenological and Engineering Explorer)အာကာသယာဉ်သည် ဂျပန်တို့၏ ဒုတိယမြောက်လပတ်အာကာသယာဉ်ဖြစ်သည်။[၁] Produced by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA), both now part of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the spacecraft was launched on September 14, 2007. After successfully orbiting the moon for a year and eight months, the main orbiter was instructed to impact on the lunar surface near the Gill lunar crater at 18:25 UTC on June 10, 2009.[၂]

The orbiter's nickname, Kaguya, was selected by the general public. It comes from the name of a lunar princess in the ancient Japanese folktale The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter.[၃] After their successful release, its sub-satellites, Rstar and Vstar, were named Okina and Ouna, also derived from characters in the tale.[၄]

ခရီးစဉ်ရည်မှန်းချက်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The main scientific objectives of the mission were to:

  • ၏မူလအစနှင့် ဘူမိဆိုင်ရာဖြစ်ထွန်းမှုများကိုလေ့လာရန်
  • လမျက်နှာပြင်၏ပတ်ဝန်းကျင်ဆိုင်ရာ အချက်အလက်များရယူရန်
  • ရေဒီယိုသိပ္ပံဆိုင်ရာPerformလုပ်ရန်၊ အထူးသဖြင့် လဆွဲအားကိုတိုင်းတာသတ်မှန်ရန်

တို့ဖြစ်သည်။

ပစ်လွှတ်ခြင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ဆလီနီအာကာသယာဉ်ကိုသယ်ဆောင်ထားသောH-IIA F13 ဒုံးပျံအားပစ်လွှတ်နေပုံ (ဓာတ်ပုံ - နာရီတာမာဆာဟီရို)

ဆလီနီအာကာသယာဉ်ကို ၂၀၀၇ခုနှစ်၊ စက်တင်လာလ ၁၄ရက်နေ့တွင် 01:31:01 UTC တွင် H-IIA (Model H2A2022) သယ်ယူပို့ဆောင်ရေးဒုံးပျံဖြင့် Tanegashima Space Center မှ---into a Template:Convert/km (perigee) / Template:Convert/km (apogee) geocentric parking orbit.[၅][၆] The total launch mass was includeonly>၃၀၂၀ kilograms (includeonly>၆၇၀၀ lb).[၇]

The SELENE mission was originally scheduled to launch in 2003, but rocket failures on another mission and technical difficulties delayed the launch until 2007.[၈] Launch was planned for August 16, 2007, but was postponed when some electronic components were found to be installed incorrectly.[၉]

Lunar operations[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

On October 3, it entered an initial Template:Convert/to polar lunar orbit.[၁၀] On October 9, the relay satellite was released into a Template:Convert/to orbit, while on October 12 the VLBI satellite was released into a Template:Convert/to one.[၄] Finally, by October 19, the orbiter was in a circular Template:Convert/km orbit.[၁၁] The nominal mission duration was one year plus possible extensions.

On October 31, 2007, Kaguya deployed its Lunar Magnetometer, Lunar Radar Sounder, Earth-looking Upper Atmosphere and Plasma Imager. On December 21, 2007, Kaguya began regular operations after all fifteen observation experiments had been satisfactorily verified.

Kaguya completed the planned operation by the end of October 2008 and began extended operations planned to continue through March 2009. It would then be sent into a circular Template:Convert/km orbit, and finally to an elliptical Template:Convert/to one, with a controlled impact occurring by August 2009.[၁၂] Because of a degraded reaction wheel, the plan was changed so that on February 1, 2009, the orbit was lowered to Template:Convert/km ± Template:Convert/km,[၁၃] and impact occurred at 18:25 UTC on June 10, 2009.[၂]

ဒီဇိုင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ခရီးစဉ်တွင် သီးခြားအာကာသယာဉ်သုံးခုပါဝင်သည်။

ပင်မလပတ်ယာဉ်[၇][ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

အိုကီနာ ( relay ဂြိုဟ်တုငယ်)[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Okina (formerly Rstar) and Ouna (formerly Vstar) were octagonal prisms to support radio science. Okina relayed radio communications between the orbiter and the Earth when the orbiter was behind the Moon. This allowed, for the first time, the direct Doppler shift measurements needed to precisely map the gravitational field of the lunar farside; previously, the farside gravity field could only be inferred by nearside measurements. The relay satellite impacted the lunar farside near the Mineur D crater at 19:46 JST (10:46 UTC) on February 12, 2009.[၁၃]

  • Function: two-way radio science relay, orbiter-earth
  • Mass: includeonly>၅၃ kilograms (includeonly>၁၂၀ lb)[၇]
  • Size: 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.65 m (3.3 x 3.3 x 2.1 ft)
  • Attitude control: spin-stabilized
  • Power: 70 W
  • Initial orbit: Template:Convert/to
  • Inclination: 90 degrees

အူနာ (VLBI ဂြိုဟ်တု)[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Ouna used Very Long Baseline Interferometry as a second way to map the Moon's gravity field. It was especially useful at the lunar limb, where the gravitational acceleration is perpendicular to the line of sight to earth, making Doppler measurements unsuitable.

  • Function: VLBI radio science
  • Mass: includeonly>၅၃ kilograms (includeonly>၁၂၀ lb)
  • Size: 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.65 m (3.3 x 3.3 x 2.1 ft)
  • Attitude control: spin-stabilized
  • Power: 70 W
  • Initial orbit: Template:Convert/to
  • Inclination: 90 degrees

ဝန်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ဆလီနီတွင် လ၏မူလနှင့်ပြောင်းလဲဖြစ်ထွန်းမှုဆိုင်ရာအချက်အလက်များနှင့် အနာဂတ်လစူးစမ်းလေ့လာရေးနည်းပညာဖွံ့ဖြိုးတိုးတက်မှုအတွက် သိပ္ပံကိရိယာ ၁၃မျိုးကိုတင်ဆောင်သွားခဲ့သည်။ [၁၄]

  • Terrain camera (TC) (resolution 10 meters [33 ft] per pixel)[၁၅]
  • X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRS)
  • Lunar magnetometer (LMAG)
  • Spectral profiler (SP) (resolution per pixel: 562 x 400 m [1840 x 1310 ft)
  • Multi-band imager (MI) (resolution of visible light 20 [66 ft] meters per pixel, near-infrared 62 meters [200 ft] per pixel)
  • laser altimeter (LALT)
  • Lunar radar sounder (LRS)
  • Gamma ray spectrometer (GRS)
  • Charged particle spectrometer (CPS)
  • Plasma analyzer (PACE)
  • Upper atmosphere and plasma imager (UPI)
  • Radio wave repeater (RSAT) aboard Okina
  • Radio wave source for VLBI (VRAD) aboard Okina and Ouna

Two 2.2 megapixel CCD HDTV cameras, one wide-angle and one telephoto, were also on board, primarily for public relations purposes.[၁၆]

JAXA collected names and messages that were carried on SELENE through their "Wish Upon the Moon" campaign.[၁၇] 412,627 names and messages were printed on a sheet measuring 280 mm x 160 mm (11 x 6.3 in) at 70 µm (0.0003 in) per character. The sheet was installed under the photovoltaic modules and cooling panels beneath the multi-layered insulation.[၁၈]

ရလဒ်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

အဓိကရလဒ်များမှာ:

  • Improved lunar global topography maps.[၁၉] This detailed altitude and geological data is provided to Google for free to make Google moon 3-D.
  • Detailed gravity map of the far side of the Moon.[၂၀]
  • First optical observation of the permanently shadowed interior of the crater Shackleton at the lunar south pole.[၂၁]

Other lunar probes[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

SELENE was part of a renewed global interest in lunar exploration; it was "the largest lunar mission since the Apollo program".[၂၂] It followed Japan's first lunar probe, Hagoromo, launched in 1990.[၁][၂၃] China launched its Chang'e 1 lunar explorer on October 24, 2007, followed by India's 22 October 2008 launch of Chandrayaan-1 and the United States Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in June 2009. The United States, European countries (ESA), Russia, Japan, India and China are planning future manned lunar exploration missions or lunar outpost construction on the Moon between 2018 and 2025.[၂၄]

ကြည့်ရန်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

မှီငြမ်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ "Kaguya – Another Chapter for the Lunar Saga", Red Orbit, 14 September 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-14. 
  2. ၂.၀ ၂.၁ KAGUYA Lunar Impact. JAXA. Retrieved on 2009-06-24
  3. "KAGUYA" selected as SELENE's nickname. Retrieved on 2007-10-13
  4. ၄.၀ ၄.၁ Template:Cite press release
  5. Emily Lakdawalla (2007-09-14). Kaguya Rockets Toward the Moon. Retrieved on 2007-09-15
  6. MHI / JAXA. H-IIAロケット13号機による月周回衛星「かぐや」の打上げ結果について(速報) (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved on 1997-09-19
  7. ၇.၀ ၇.၁ ၇.၂ 平成19年度夏期ロケット打ち上げおよび追跡管制計画書 (Rocket Launch and Tracking Control Plan, Summer 2007) (PDF) (in Japanese). MHI / JAXA.
  8. Japan launches first lunar probe. BBC News (14 September 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-14
  9. Launch Postponement of the KAGUYA (SELENE) (2007-07-20). Retrieved on 2007-08-15
  10. Template:Cite press release
  11. かぐや/H-IIA13号機 打上げ特設サイト (in Japanese). Retrieved on 2007-10-01
  12. 月周回衛星「かぐや(SELENE)」の定常運用終了と後期運用計画について (PDF) (in Japanese) (2008-11-05). Retrieved on 2008-11-05
  13. ၁၃.၀ ၁၃.၁ 月周回衛星「かぐや(SELENE)」の 状況について (PDF) (in Japanese) (2009-02-18). Retrieved on 2009-02-22
  14. Kaguya (SELENE). JAXA. Retrieved on 2007-06-25
  15. LISM [TC, MI, SP]. Kaguya (SELENE). JAXA. Retrieved on 2007-06-25
  16. KAGUYA (SELENE) - Mission Instruments - HDTV. Retrieved on 2009-03-01
  17. Template:Cite press release
  18. セレーネ「月に願いを!」(SELENE "Wish Upon the Moon!") (in Japanese). JAXA (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-14
  19. H. Araki et al. (February 13, 2009). "Lunar Global Shape and Polar Topography Derived from Kaguya-LALT Laser Altimetry". Science 323 (5916): pp. 897–900. doi:10.1126/science.1164146. PMID 19213910. Bibcode2009Sci...323..897A. 
  20. N. Namiki et al. (February 13, 2009). "Farside Gravity Field of the Moon from Four-Way Doppler Measurements of SELENE (Kaguya)". Science 323 (5916): pp. 900–905. doi:10.1126/science.1168029. PMID 19213911. Bibcode2009Sci...323..900N. 
  21. J. Haruyama et al. (November 7, 2008). "Lack of Exposed Ice Inside Lunar South Pole Shackleton Crater". Science 322 (5903): pp. 938–939. doi:10.1126/science.1164020. PMID 18948501. Bibcode2008Sci...322..938H. 
  22. SELENE: The largest lunar mission since the Apollo program. Retrieved on 2008-04-21
  23. Hiten. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-09-14
  24. NASA Authorization Act of 2008 - Section 404 - Lunar Outpost. Library of Congress (2008-10-22).

ပြင်ပချိတ်ဆက်ရန်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Template:Moon spacecraft Template:Japanese space program Template:Orbital launches in 2007