ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား မှ
Abu Rayhan al-Biruni
ابوریحان محمد بن احمد البیرونی
An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a 1973 Soviet postage stamp
Kath, Khwarezm (ယနေ့ခေတ်-ဥဇ္ဇဘက်ကစ္စတန်
ကွယ်လွန်c. 1050 (အသ် ၇၇)
Ghazni (ယနေ့အဖဂန်နစ္စတန်)

အဘူ ရေးဟန် အယ်လ်ဘီရူနီ (အင်္ဂလိပ်: Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, /ælbɪˈrni/) (၉၇၃- ၁၀၅၀ နောက်ပိုင်း)[၂] သည် အီရန်[၃][၄][၅][၆] ပညာတတ်၊ စွယ်စုံပညာရှင်တစ်ဦးဖြစ်၍ အစ္စလာမ်ရွှေခေတ်အတွင်း နေထိုင်ခဲ့သူဖြစ်သည်။ ၎င်းကို အိန္ဒိယစာ အိန္ဒိယမှု ဘာသာရပ် (Indology) တည်ထောင်သူ၊ လေ့လာနှိုင်းယှဉ် ဘာသာရေးတို့၏ ဖခင်၊[၇][၅][၈][၉] ခေတ်သစ် ဘူမိသင်္ချာ (geodesy) ဘာသာရပ်၏ ဖခင်၊ ပထမဆုံး မနုဿဗေဒပညာရှင်အဖြစ် အမျိုးမျိုး ခေါ်ဝေါ်ကြသည်။[၁၀][၁၁]

ရူပဗေဒသင်္ချာနက္ခတ္တဗေဒ၊ သဘာဝသိပ္ပံ တို့၌ လိမ္မာကျွမ်းကျင်သူဖြစ်ပြီး မိမိကိုယ်ကို သမိုင်း၊ ရာဇဝင် ပညာရှင်၊ ဘာသာဗေဒပညာရှင်ဟူ၍လည်း ကင်းပွန်းတပ်သောသူဖြစ်သည်။[၅] ၎င်းခေတ်အတွင်း ရှိရှိသမျှသောရသိပ္ပံပညာရပ်များကို လေ့လာခဲ့သူဖြစ်ပြီး အသိပညာနယ်ပယ်များတွင် သုတေသနများလည်း ဆောင်ရွက်ခဲ့သူဖြစ်သည်။[၁၂]


  1. Akhtar, Zia. "Constitutional legitimacy: Sharia law, secularism and the social compact." Indon. L. Rev. 1 (2011): 107. "The largest school of thought of Sunni Islam, the Ashari rejected the natural law tradition. Its leading protagonist Al-Biruni, a scholar and mathematician, viewed natural law as the 'law of the jungle', and argued that the antagonism between human beings can only be overcome"
  2. BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN – Encyclopaedia Iranica။ 29 May 2019 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။ “BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN MOḤAMMAD b. Aḥmad (362/973- after 442/1050), scholar and polymath of the period of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids and one of the two greatest intellectual figures of his time in the eastern lands of the Muslim world, the other being Ebn Sīnā (Avicenna).”
  3. Bosworth၊ C. E. (1968)။ "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000–1217)"။ in Boyle၊ J.A. (ed.)။ The Cambridge History of Iran: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Vol (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)။ Cambridge University Press။ p. 7။ The Iranian scholar al-Biruni says that the Khwarazmian era began when the region was first settled and cultivated, this date being placed in the early 13th-century BC)
    • Frye၊ Richard Nelson (February 2000)။ The Golden Age of Persia (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)။ Phoenix Publishing, Incorporated။ ISBN 978-0-7538-0944-0The contribution of Iranians to Islamic mathematics is overwhelming. ..The name of Abu Raihan Al-Biruni, from Khwarazm, must be mentioned since he was one of the greatest scientists in World History
    • Khan၊ M. A. Saleem (2001)။ Al-Biruni's Discovery of India: An Interpretative Study (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)။ iAcademicBooks။ p. 11။ ISBN 978-1-58868-139-3It is generally accepted that he was Persian by origin, and spoke the Khwarizmian dialect
    • Rahman၊ H. U. (1995)၊ A Chronology of Islamic History : 570 – 1000 CE၊ London: Mansell Publishing၊ p. 167ISBN 1-897940-32-7A Persian by birth, Biruni produced his writings in Arabic, though he knew, besides Persian, no less than four other languages.
  4. * "Al-Bīrūnī | Persian scholar and scientist"Encyclopedia Britannica (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)6 July 2018 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး
    • Lindberg၊ David C. (15 March 1980)။ Science in the Middle Ages (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)။ University of Chicago Press။ p. 18။ ISBN 978-0-226-48233-0A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di.
    • Massignon၊ L. (1951)။ "Al-Biruni et la valuer internationale de la science arabe""။ Al-Bīrūnī Commemoration Volume A.H.362-A.H.1362 (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)။ Iran Society။ pp. 217–219။ In a celebrated preface to the book of Drugs, Biruni says, "And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Khwarezmian, science has as much as chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Kaaba.
    • Strohmaier 2006, p. 112
    • MacKenzie 2011
    • Samian၊ A.L. (31 July 1997)။ "Al-Biruni"။ in Selin၊ Helaine (ed.)။ Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)။ Springer Science & Business Media။ p. 157။ ISBN 978-0-7923-4066-9his native language was the Khwarizmian dialect
  5. ၅.၀ ၅.၁ ၅.၂ Boilot၊ D.J.၊ Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad New Ed.1၊ pp. 1236–1238၊ He was born of an Iranian family in 362/973 (according to al-Ghadanfar, on 3 Dhu'l-Hididja/ 4 September – see E. Sachau, Chronology, xivxvi), in the suburb (birun) of Kath, capital of Khwarizm....was one of the greatest scholars of mediaeval Islam, and certainly the most original and profound. He was equally well versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds. He is known as al-Ustdadh, 'the Master'. in Bearman, Bianquis & Bosworth 2007
  6. Berggren၊ J. L.; Borwein၊ Jonathan; Borwein၊ Peter (2014)။ Pi: A Source Book (အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစကားဖြင့်)။ Springer။ p. 680။ ISBN 978-1-4757-4217-6The Persian polymath, al-Birüni, a younger contemporary of Abu'l-Wafa', calculated the perimeters of inscribed and ...
  7. Bukhara, the Eastern Dome of Islam: Urban Development, Urban Space By Anette Gangler, Heinz Gaube, Attilio Petruccio
  8. Regimes of Comparatis edited by Renaud Gagné, Simon Goldhill, Geoffrey Lloyd
  9. Kamaruzzaman, Kamar Oniah (2003). "Al-Biruni: Father of Comparative Religion" (in en). Intellectual Discourse. 
  10. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist". RAIN. 60 (60): 9–10. doi:10.2307/3033407
  11. PhD၊ Joseph J. Kerski (17 October 2016)။ Interpreting Our World: 100 Discoveries That Revolutionized Geography: 100 Discoveries That Revolutionized Geography။ ABC-CLIO။ p. 12။ ISBN 978-1-61069-920-415 January 2018 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး – via Google Books။
  12. Yano, Michio (1 September 2013). "al-Bīrūnī" (in en). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE.