ဒတ်ချ် အရှေ့အိန္ဒိယ ကုမ္ပဏီ

ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား မှ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
United East India Company[မှတ်စု ၁]
Former typePublicly traded company
လုပ်ငန်းProto-conglomerate[မှတ်စု ၂]
FateDissolved
လွှဲအပ်သူတမ်းပလိတ်:Clist
တည်ထောင်သည့်နှစ်၂၀ မတ် ၁၆၀၂ (၁၆၀၂-၀၃-၂၀),[၅] by a government-directed amalgamation of the voorcompagnieën/pre-companies
တည်ထောင်သူများJohan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General
Defunct၁ ဇန်နဝါရီ ၁၈၀၀ (၁၈၀၀-၀၁-၀၁)
ဌာနချုပ်
ဝန်ဆောင်မှု ဧရိယာ
အရေးပါ ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်များ
ထုတ်ကုန်ပစ္စည်းSpices, silk, porcelain, metals, livestock, tea, grain, rice, soybeans, sugarcane,[၁] wine,[၂][၃][၄] coffee

ဒတ်ချ် အရှေ့အိန္ဒိယ ကုမ္ပဏီ (အင်္ဂလိပ်: Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company; ဒတ်ချ်: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC) သည် ၁၇ ရာစု အစောပိုင်း၌ ပြိုင်ဘက်ဒတ်ချ် ကုမ္ပဏီများကို စုစည်းပေါင်းစပ်ထားကာ ဒတ်ချ်အစိုးရက ဦးစီးဦးဆောင်ပြု တည်ထောင်ထားသည့် အကြီးစား စီးပွားရေးလုပ်ငန်းကြီးတစ်ခုဖြစ်သည်။[၆][၇] ၁၆၀၂ မတ်လ ၂၀ တွင် တော်ဝင်အမိန့်ဖြင့် တည်ထောင်ခဲ့ကာ မိုဂယ်မင်းဆက်အုပ်စိုးသော အိန္ဒိယနိုင်ငံနှင့် ကုန်သွယ်ရန်ဖြစ်သည်။[၈]

မှတ်စု[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

  1. The direct translation of the Dutch name Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie is "United East-India Company". For the VOC's different English-language trade names, see articles: East India companies; Greater India; East India; East Indies; Dutch East Indies; Dutch India; Voorcompagnie; List of Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements.
  2. Historically, the Dutch East India Company was a multinational proto-conglomerate (including international trade, shipbuilding, spice production and trade, sugarcane industry, Shih, Chih-Ming; Yen, Szu-Yin (2009). The Transformation of the Sugar Industry and Land Use Policy in Taiwan, in Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering [8:1], pp. 41–48</ref>[၁] wine industry[၂][၃][၄]) rather than a pure trading company or shipping company.
  3. As the VOC's board of directors
  4. As the VOC's de facto chief executives

ကိုးကား[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ Tseng, Hua-pi (2016). Sugar Cane and the Environment under Dutch Rule in Seventeenth Century Taiwan, in Environmental History in the Making, pp. 189–200
  2. ၂.၀ ၂.၁ Estreicher, Stefan K. (2014), 'A Brief History of Wine in South Africa,'. European Review 22(3): pp. 504–537. doi:10.1017/S1062798714000301
  3. ၃.၀ ၃.၁ Fourie, Johan; von Fintel, Dieter (2014), 'Settler Skills and Colonial Development: The Huguenot Wine-Makers in Eighteenth-Century Dutch South Africa,'. The Economic History Review 67(4): 932–963. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.12033
  4. ၄.၀ ၄.၁ Williams, Gavin (2016), 'Slaves, Workers, and Wine: The 'Dop System' in the History of the Cape Wine Industry, 1658–1894,'. Journal of Southern African Studies 42(5): 893–909
  5. The Dutch East India Company (VOC)။ Canon van Nederland။ 26 December 2018 တွင် မူရင်းအား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီး။ 19 March 2011 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
  6. Gelderblom, Oscar; de Jong, Abe; Jonker, Joost (2011), 'An Admiralty for Asia: Business Organization and the Evolution of Corporate Governance in the Dutch Republic, 1590–1640,'; in J.G. Koppell (ed.), Origins of Shareholder Advocacy. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), pp. 29–70. Gelderblom, Jonker & de Jong (2010): "The hot rivalry between the voorcompagnieën undermined the country's fragile political unity and economic prosperity, and seriously limited the prospects of competing successfully against other Asian traders from Europe. ... According to Willem Usselincx, a large merchant well versed in the intercontinental trade, the VOC charter was drafted by bewindhebbers bent on defending their own interests and the States-General had allowed that to pass so as to achieve the desired merger (Van Rees 1868, 410). An agreement was finally reached on March 20th, 1602, after which the Estates General issued a charter granting a monopoly on the Asian trade for 21 years (Gaastra 2009, 21–23)."
  7. Unoki, Ko (2012), 'A Seafaring Empire,'; in Mergers, Acquisitions and Global Empires: Tolerance, Diversity and the Success of M&A, by Ko Unoki. (New York: Routledge, 2013), pp. 39–64
  8. Richards၊ John F. (1995)။ The Mughal Empire။ Cambridge University Press။ ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2