အကူအညီ:IPA

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help installing IPA-compatible fonts အတွက် Help:Special characters § IPA symbols ကို ကြည့်ပါ။
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Here is a basic key to the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet. For the smaller set of symbols that is sufficient for English, see Help:IPA for English. Several rare IPA symbols are not included; these are found in the main IPA article. For the Manual of Style guideline for pronunciation, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation).

For each IPA symbol, an English example is given where possible; here "RP" stands for Received Pronunciation. The foreign languages that are used to illustrate additional sounds are primarily the ones most likely to be familiar to English speakers, French, German, and Spanish. For symbols not covered by those, recourse is taken to the populous languages Mandarin Chinese, Hindustani, Arabic, and Russian. For sounds still not covered, other smaller but well-known languages are used, such as Swahili, Turkish, and Zulu.

The left-hand column displays the symbols like this: တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe. Click on the speaker icon to hear the sound; click on the symbol itself for a dedicated article with a more complete description and examples from multiple languages. All the sounds are spoken more than once, and the consonant sounds are spoken once followed by a vowel and once between vowels.

တမ်းပလိတ်:CompactTOC8

Main symbols[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.

   Symbol     Examples Description
A
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Mandarin 他 tā, German Mann For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe American English ah, Spanish casa, French patte
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Aachen, French gare Long [a].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written တမ်းပလိတ်:Angle bracket.)
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Finnish Linna, Dutch bad
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe RP father, French pâte Long [ɑ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When တမ်းပလိတ်:Angle bracket is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe RP cat
B
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English babble
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Like the brrr sound made when cold.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children" Like [b], but with the lips not quite touching.
C
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Mandarin Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under O
D
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English dad
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English the, bathe
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe1 English adds, Italian zero
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe1 English judge
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe1 Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe1 Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish fe; French clé
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Klee Long [e]. Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe American English runner
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English bet
[ ɛ̃ ] French Agen, vin, main; Polish mięso Nasalized [ɛ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe RP bird (long)
[ ɝ ] American English bird
F
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English fun
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under J
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under J
G
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English gag (Should look like Opentail g.svg. No different from a Latin "g")
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Gaddafi.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under Z English beige.
H
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe American English house
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English ahead, when said quickly.
[ ʰ ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Arabic محمد Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under U
[ ɮ ] see under L
I
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French ville, Spanish Valladolid
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English sea Long [i].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English sit
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
[ ʲ ] Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English kick, skip
L
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English leaf
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English mime
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ ɯ ] see under W
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under W
N
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English nun
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English sing
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish no, French eau
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Boden, French Vosges Long [o]. Somewhat reminiscent of English no.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Oldenburg, French Garonne
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe RP law, French Limoges Long [ɔ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French Lyon, son; Polish wąż Nasalized [ɔ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French feu, bœufs Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Goethe, French Dle, neutre Long [ø].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French œuvre, heure Long [œ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under other
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under other
P
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English pip
Q
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Arabic Qur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Generally used for English [ɹ] when there's no need to be precise.)
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe RP borrow
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French Paris, German Riemann Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English sass
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English shoe
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Swedish sju
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English tot, stop
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe2 English cats, Russian царь tsar
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe 2 English church
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe2 Mandarin 北京 တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe, Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe2 Mandarin zh, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French vous "you"
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French Rocquencourt, German Schumacher, close to RP food Long [u].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English foot, German Bundesrepublik
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under W
V
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English verve
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Arabic / Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Mandarin Hénán Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ ʌ ] see under A
W
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English wow
[ ʷ ] English rain [ɹʷeɪn] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, quick.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Turkish kayık "caïque" Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Spanish agua
X
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back , in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe French rue Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Bülow, French sûr Long [y].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe German Eisenhüttenstadt Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under U
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe see under V
[ ɣ ] see under V
Z
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English zoos
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English vision, French journal
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe formal Russian жжёшь [ʑːoʂ] "you burn", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ ɮ ] see under L
Other
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English thigh, bath
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɨnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [ʌˈʔæpl̩].
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Arabic عربي carabī "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǀ ], [ ɡǀ ], [ ŋǀ ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǁ ], [ ɡǁ ], [ ŋǁ ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
တမ်းပလိတ်:Audio-pipe Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǃ ], [ ɡǃ ], [ ŋǃ ].
  • ^1 ^2 These symbols are officially written with a tie linking them (e.g. t͡ʃ), and are also sometimes written as single characters (e.g. ʧ) though the latter convention is no longer official. They are written without ligatures here to ensure correct display in all browsers.

Diacritic marks[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

All diacritics are here shown on a carrier letter such as the vowel a.

Symbol Example Description
[ ˈa ] pronunciation
[pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]
Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ ˌa ] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ aː ] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc.
[ aˑ ] RP caught [ˈkʰɔˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɒt].)
[ a̯ ] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].)
[ ã ] French vin blanc [vãblɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang.
[ n̥ ] Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa.
[ n̩ ] English button A consonant without a vowel. (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.)
[ d̪ ] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
[ kʰ ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ].
[ k’ ] Zulu ukuza "come" Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [tʼ pʼ qʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ].
[ á ] Mandarin [mámā] "mother" High tone (Pinyin: mā) Careful!
The Pinyin Romanization used for Mandarin has these same diacritics, but with different values.
However, Thai Romanization uses them the way the IPA does.
[ ā ] Mandarin 妈 [mámā] "mother" Mid tone (Pinyin: ma).
[ à ] Mandarin [màdɤ] "horse's" Low tone (Pinyin: mǎ).
[ â ] Mandarin 骂 [mâ] "scold" Falling tone (Pinyin: mà).
[ ǎ ] Mandarin 麻 [mǎ] "hemp" Rising tone (Pinyin: má).
[ . ] English courtship [ˈkɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break. (this is often redundant and therefore left off)

Brackets[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Two types of brackets are commonly used to enclose transcriptions in the IPA:

  • /Slashes/ indicate those meaningful sounds that are distinguished as the basic sounds of a language by native speakers; these are called phonemes. Changing the symbols between slashes would either change the identity of the word or produce nonsense. For example, since there is no meaningful difference to a native speaker between the two sounds written with the letter el in the word lulls, they are considered the same phoneme and so, using slashes, they are given the same symbol in IPA: /ˈlʌlz/. Similarly, Spanish la bomba is transcribed phonemically with two instances of the same b sound, /laˈbomba/, despite the fact that they sound different to a speaker of English. Thus a reader who is not familiar with the language in question might not know how to interpret these transcriptions more narrowly.
  • [Square brackets] indicate the narrower or more detailed phonetic qualities of a pronunciation, not taking into account the norms of the language to which it belongs; therefore, such transcriptions do not regard whether subtly different sounds in the pronunciation are actually noticeable or distinguishable to a native speaker of the language. Within square brackets is what a foreigner who does not know the structure of a language might hear as discrete units of sound. For instance, the English word lulls may be pronounced in a particular dialect more specifically as [ˈlɐɫz], with different letter el sounds at the beginning and end. This may be obvious to speakers of other languages that differentiate between the sounds [l] and [ɫ]. Likewise, Spanish la bomba (pronounced without a pause) has two different b-sounds to the ears of foreigners or linguists—[laˈβomba]—though a native Spanish speaker might not be able to hear it. Omitting or adding such detail does not make a difference to the identity of the word, but helps to give a more precise pronunciation.

A third kind of bracket is occasionally seen:

  • Either //double slashes// or |pipes| (or occasionally other conventions) show that the enclosed sounds are theoretical constructs that are not actually heard. (This is part of morphophonology.) For instance, most phonologists argue that the -s at the ends of verbs, which surfaces as either /s/ in talks /tɔːks/ or as /z/ in lulls /lʌlz/, has a single underlying form. If they decide this form is an s, they would write it //s// (or |s|) to claim that phonemic /tɔːks/ and /lʌlz/ are essentially //tɔːks// and //lʌls// underneath. If they were to decide it was essentially the latter, //z//, they would transcribe these words //tɔːkz// and //lʌlz//.

Lastly,

Rendering issues[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Voiced velar plosive[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

These two characters should look similar:

ɡ Opentail g.svg

If in the box to the left you see the symbol ɡMSReferenceSansSerif.png rather than a lower-case open-tail g, you may be experiencing a well-known bug in the font MS Reference Sans Serif; switching to another font may fix it.

On your current font: [ɡ],

and in several other fonts:

တမ်းပလိတ်:MFSample

Affricates and double articulation[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

The tie bar is intended to cover both letters of an affricate or doubly articulated consonant. However, if your browser uses Arial Unicode MS to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences may look better than the correct order (letter, tie bar, letter) due to a bug in that font:

ts͡, tʃ͡, tɕ͡, dz͡, dʒ͡, dʑ͡, tɬ͡, kp͡, ɡb͡, ŋm͡.

Here is how the proper configuration displays in your default IPA font:

t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m,

and in several other fonts: တမ်းပလိတ်:MFSample

Angle brackets[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

True angle brackets, ⟨ ⟩, are unsupported by several common fonts. Here is how they display in your default settings:

⟨...⟩ (unformatted)
⟨...⟩ (default IPA font)
⟨...⟩ (default Unicode font),

and in several specific fonts:

တမ်းပလိတ်:MFSample

See also[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Notes[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

External links[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:IPA keys horizontal