ဤဆောင်းပါးကို မြန်မာဘာသာသို့ ပြန်ဆိုရန် လိုအပ်နေသေးသည်။
Typhoon-class submarine underway
|အမည်:||Akula (Акула) (NATO: Typhoon)|
|တည်ဆောက်သူများ:||Rubin Design Bureau|
|ယခင်အမျိုးအစား:||Delta class submarine|
|နောက်ထွက် အမျိုးအစား:||Borei class submarine|
|In commission:||December 12, 1981|
|အမျိုးအစား:||Ballistic missile submarine|
|အလျား:||၁၇၅ m (၅၇၄ ft ၂ in)|
|ရက်မ:||၂၃ m (၇၅ ft ၆ in)|
|Draught:||၁၂ m (၃၉ ft ၄ in)|
|ခံနိင်ရည်အား:||120+ days submerged|
|စမ်းသပ် အနက်:||၄၀၀ m (၁,၃၀၀ ft)|
|မှတ်စု:||Ships in class include: TK-208 TK-202 TK-12 TK-13 TK-17 TK-20 TK-210|
စီမံကိန်း ၉၄၁ သို့မဟုတ် Akula, Russian "Акула" ("Shark") အမျိုးအစား ရေငုပ်သင်္ဘော(နေတိုးအခေါ်: တိုင်ဖွန်း) သည် ၁၉၈၀ကာလ ဆိုဗီယက်ရေတပ်တွင် စတင်အသုံးပြုသောနယူကလီးယားစွမ်းအင်သုံး ဒုံးပစ်ရေငုပ်သင်္ဘောဖြစ်သည်။ တန်ချိန် ၄၈,၀၀၀ ရှိသည့် တိုင်ဖွန်းရေငုပ်သင်္ဘောသည် တည်ဆောက်ခဲ့သော ရေငုပ်သင်္ဘာမှန်သမျှတွင်အကြီးဆုံးဖြစ်ပြီး သင်္ဘောသားများအတွက် လပေါင်းများစွာရေအောက်ခရီးစဉ်အတွက် လုံလောက်သောရိက္ခာပစ္စည်းများသိုလှောင်နိုင်သည်။  The source of the NATO reporting name remains unclear, although it is often claimed to be related to the use of the word "Typhoon" ("Тайфун") by Leonid Brezhnev in a 1974 speech while describing a new type of nuclear ballistic missile submarine. Soviet doctrine for these vessels was to patrol under the Arctic ice cap and surface to launch SLBMs, avoiding the need to transit the GIUK gap and remaining safe from the enemy attack submarines and anti-submarine forces. Technically, Typhoons were also able to successfully deploy their long-range nuclear missiles while moored at their docks. The Russian Navy canceled its Typhoon modernization program in March 2012, stating that modernizing one Typhoon would be as expensive as building two new Template:Sclass2s. With the announcement that Russia has eliminated the last SS-N-20 Sturgeon SLBMs in September 2012, the remaining Typhoons have reached the end of their operational service lives.
Typhoon submarines are among the most quiet Russian sea vessels in operation, being quieter and yet more maneuverable than their predecessors.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်] Besides their missile armament, the Typhoon class features six torpedo tubes; four are designed to handle RPK-2 (SS-N-15) missiles or Type 53 torpedoes, and the other two are designed to launch RPK-7 (SS-N-16) missiles, Type 65 torpedoes, or mines.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်] A Typhoon-class submarine can stay submerged for periods up to 120 days in normal conditions, and potentially more if deemed necessary (e.g., in the case of a nuclear war). Their primary weapons system is composed of 20 R-39 (NATO: SS-N-20) ballistic missiles (SLBM) with a maximum of 10 MIRV nuclear warheads each.
Typhoon-class submarines feature multiple pressure hulls that simplify internal design while making the vessel much wider than a normal submarine. In the main body of the sub, two Delta class pressure hulls lie parallel with a third, smaller pressure hull above them (which protrudes just below the sail), and two other pressure hulls for torpedoes and steering gear. This also greatly increases their survivability - even if one pressure hull is breached, the crew members in the other are safe and there is less potential for flooding.
တိုင်ဖွန်းအမျိုးအစားသည် ရုရှားတို့၏ ငါးမန်းဟုအဓိပ္ပာယ်ရသည့် အကူလာအမျိုးအစားရေငုပ်သင်္ဘောစီမံချက် ၉၄၁ မှပေါ်ပေါက်လာခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။ It is sometimes confused with other submarines, as Akula is the name NATO uses to designate the Russian Project 971 Shchuka-B (Щука-Б) class attack submarines. The project was developed with the objective to match the SLBM armament of Template:Sclass-s, capable of carrying 192 nuclear warheads, 100 kt each. However, at the time, state-of-the-art Soviet SLBMs were substantially larger and heavier than their American counterparts (the R-39 is more than two times heavier than the Trident I; it remains the heaviest SLBM in service worldwide). The submarine had to be scaled accordingly.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]
တိုင်ဖွန်းအမျိုးအစားရေငုပ်သင်္ဘော စုစုပေါင်း ၆ စီးတည်ဆောက်ခဲ့သည်။ Originally, the submarines were designated by hull numbers only. Names were later assigned to the four vessels retained by the Russian Navy, which were sponsored by either a city or company. The construction order for an additional vessel (hull number TK-210) was canceled and never completed. Only the first of these submarines to be constructed, the Dmitriy Donskoy, is still in active service with the Russian Navy, serving as a test platform for the Bulava (SS-NX-32) missile which is currently under development. The Arkhangelsk (TK-17) and Severstal (TK-20) remain commissioned, though not currently active with the Russian fleet. All the R-39 missiles have been retired. The Typhoons are slated to be replaced by the Borei class starting in 2010-11.
In late December 2008, a senior Navy official announced that the two Typhoon-class submarines, the TK-17 and TK-20, that are in reserve would not be rearmed with the new Bulava SLBM missile system. They could however be modified to carry cruise missiles or to lay mines, or could be used in special operations. In late June 2009, the Navy Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky told reporters that the two submarines would be reserved for possible future repairs and modernization. In May 2010 the Navy Commander-in-Chief reported that Russia's Typhoon-class submarines would remain in service with the Navy until 2019. In September 2011, the Russian defense ministry decided to write off all Project 941 Akula nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines until 2014. The reason for decommission of the world's largest submarines are restrictions imposed on Russia by the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty and successful trials of new Borei-class submarine. However, according to other sources at the Russian defence ministry no such decision has been made and in that case the submarines would remain with the Russian Navy., Submarines TK-17 Arhangelsk and TK-20 Severstal will not be modernized as platforms for cruise missiles, but they will be kept in service with their previous armament, R-39 missiles.
Typhoon-based cargo vessel[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
The Submarine Cargo Vessel is a proposed idea by the Rubin Design Bureau where a Typhoon has its missile launchers removed and replaced with cargo holds. The projected cargo capacity of this configuration is ၁၅,၀၀၀ tonne (၁၅,၀၀၀ long ton).
|TK-208 Dmitriy Donskoy||June 30, 1976||September 27, 1980||December 29, 1981||In service. Upgraded to project 941UM for use of Bulava missiles(1 launcher)|
|TK-202||April 22, 1978||September 23, 1982||December 28, 1983||Withdrawn from active service in June 1999, scrapped 2003-2005|
|TK-12,Simbirsk||April 19, 1980||December 17, 1983||December 26, 1984||Withdrawn from active service in 1996, scrapped 2006-2008|
|TK-13||February 23, 1982||April 30, 1985||December 26, 1985||Withdrawn from active service in 1997, scrapped 2007-2009|
|TK-17 Arkhangelsk||August 9, 1983||December 12, 1986||December 15, 1987||Decommissioned in 2006|
|TK-20 Severstal||August 27, 1985||April 11, 1988||December 19, 1989||Decommissioned in 2004|
|TK-210||1986||1990 (scrapped on the ways)|
834 TK 208 Dmitriy Donskoy[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
- 9 February 1982: Entered 18th division (Zapadnaya Litsa), NOR.
- December 1982: Transferred from Severodvinsk to Zapadnaya Litsa.
- 1983-1984: Tests of D-19 missile complex. Commanders: A.V.Olkhovikov (1980–1984).
- 3 December 1986: Entered Navy Board of the Winners of the Socialist Competition.
- 18 January 1987: Entered MoD Board of Glory.
- 20 September 1989–1991: Repairs and refit at Sevmash to Project 941U. 1991 refit cancelled.
- 1996: Returned to 941U refit.
- 2002: Named Dmitriy Donskoy.
- 26 June 2002: End of refit.
- 30 June 2002: Start of testing.
- 26 July 2002: Entered sea trials, Re-entered fleet, without missile system.
- December 2003: Sea trials; refitted to carry a new Bulava missile system. New missile system expected to be operational by 2005.
- 9 October 2005: Successfully launched SS-NX-30 Bulava SLBM from surface.
- 21 December 2005: Successfully launched SS-NX-30 Bulava SLBM from submerged position on move.
- 7 September 2006: Test launch of the Bulava missile failed after several minutes in flight due to the problems in the flight control system. The missile fell into the sea about a minute after the launch. The sub was not affected and was returning to Severodvinsk base submerged. Later reports blamed the engine of the first stage for the failure.
- 25 October 2006: Test launch of the Bulava-M missile in the White Sea failed some 200 seconds after liftoff due to the apparent failure of the flight control system.
- 28 August 2008: Undergone successful testing at the Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk Oblast. More than 170 men are currently working with the Dmitriy Donskoy, hundred of them employees at the Sevmash plant and 70 from other involved companies.
830 TK 17 Arkhangelsk[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
- 19 February 1988: Entered 18th division (Zapadnaya Litsa) NOR.
- 8 January–9 November 2002: Refit at Sevmash.
- In July 2002, crew petitioned Main Navy Headquarters to adopt the name Arkhangel'sk (renamed on 18 November 2002).
- Commander: 2002-2003 V.Volkov.
- 17 February 2004: Took part in military exercises with President Vladimir Putin aboard.
- In reserve from 2004, will be brought back to service in 2012 according to the Russian navy web-site flot.com.
TK 20 Severstal[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
- 28 February 1990: Entered 18th division (Zapadnaya Litsa), NOR.
- 25 August 1996: Successfully launched SLBM
- November 1996: Successfully launched SLBM from North Pole.
- 24 July 1999: Took part in parade on Navy Day in Severomorsk, NOR.
- November–December 1999 - distant cruise.
- 2001: named to Severstal.
- June 2001–December 2002: Repairs at Sevmash.
- Commander: A.Bogachev (2001).
- In reserve from 2004, will be brought back to service in 2012 according to the Russian navy web-site flot.com.
- Two side-by-side (TK-20 and TK-17) at
- One (TK-208) at Admiral Gorshkov, undergoing refurbishment for delivery to the Indian Navy as INS Vikramaditya, a few metres north and east of this submarine.) (note the aircraft carrier
- currently TK-17 at
Probably the best-known fictional Typhoon-class submarine was the stealth equipped Red October, the subject of the Tom Clancy novel The Hunt for Red October and its 1990 movie adaptation, starring Sean Connery as the fictional Captain Marko Ramius.
In the novel, Red October used a drive system consisting of long shafts cut through the hull containing impellers called a tunnel drive or "caterpillar drive." In the movie, the caterpillar drive was instead said to be a magnetohydrodynamic drive with no moving parts. In both the novel and the movie, the drive was said to be near-silent; this made the Red October a perfect platform for launching depressed-trajectory ballistic missiles at the United States.
The movie features Red October as an upgraded Typhoon-class submarine with additional length and potentially a towed array sonar (the distinctive "bulb" seen on top of the rudder houses). The latter presumption is questionable as the existence of a functional towed array (thus functional passive sonar capability astern) would eliminate the need for the boat to clear its baffles by maneuvering (executing a "Crazy Ivan"); Though the baffle clearing maneuver might well have been employed per Soviet doctrine and sheer habit, the 688 (Los Angeles) class attack submarine USS Dallas (SSN-700) (close aboard in October's baffles) would have been almost surely counter detected by any functional towed array prior to intentionally cavitating.
- Podvodnye Lodki, Yu.V. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2002, ISBN 5-8172-0069-4
- Only 20 torpedoes and/or AShMs can be loaded.
- TK-208 received the name Dmitri Donskoi.
- TK-12 received the name Simbirsk in 2001.
- TK-17 received the name Arkhangelsk on 18 November 2002.
- TK-20 received the name Severstal.
- Submarine Milestones - Largest Subs။ National Geographic (1981-12-12)။ 2011-08-14 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Waller D.C. (March 2001). "Essay - The Hunt for Big Red" (PDF). Wake Forest Magazine 48 (3): 28–31. Retrieved on 13 October 2009.
- 941 TYPHOON - Russian and Soviet Nuclear Forces။ Fas.org။ 2011-08-14 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Russian Navy Abandons Akula Modernization Project။ Russian Navy (2012-07-03)။ 2012-09-26 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Russia, USA Liquidated Entire Class of Ballistic Missiles။ Russian Navy (2012-09-17)။ 2012-09-26 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Russia to hold more test launches of Bulava ICBM in 2009 | Russia | RIA Novosti။ En.rian.ru။ 2011-08-14 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- © РИА Новости. Олег Ласточкин။ Стратегические АПЛ "Тайфун" останутся в боевом составе ВМФ РФ | Оборона и безопасность | Лента новостей "РИА Новости"။ Rian.ru။ 2011-08-14 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Russia set to keep Typhoon class nuclear subs until 2019 - Navy | Defense | RIA Novosti။ En.rian.ru (1961-08-13)။ 2011-08-14 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Russia To Dismantle World's Biggest Subs။ http://rusnavy.com/။+ 2011-09-29 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- No plans to retire Typhoon class subs soon - Russian military | Defense | RIA Novosti။ En.rian.ru (2011-09-30)။ 2012-07-22 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- 25.02.10 "Булаву" впервые испытают на АПЛ проекта "Борей" - Военный паритет။ Militaryparitet.com။ 2012-07-22 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Text: Trude Pettersen (2009-06-04)။ One sub out, another one in။ BarentsObserver။ 2011-08-14 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
- Break It Down - Nuclear Submarine။ nationalgeographic.com။ 2010-08-23 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။
|Wikimedia Commons တွင် Typhoon class submarines နှင့် ပတ်သက်သော မီဒီယာ ရှိသည်။|
- NATO Code Names for submarines and ships
- Video of the Typhoon in Drydock & on Sea Trials
- Federation of American Scientists: Typhoon
- Haze Gray
- Nuclear Notebook - Russian Nuclear Forces, 2005, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April 2005.
- Rubin official site
- russianforces.org - Russian Navy
- Internal and external pictures from a Russian tourist
- Typhoon Class project details on Naval Technology