တမ်းပလိတ်:ကိုးကားခြင်း

ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား မှ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
Documentation icon တမ်းပလိတ်မှတ်တမ်းလက်စွဲ[ကြည့်ရှု] [တည်းဖြတ်] [ရာဇဝင်] [ရှင်းသန့်]
the တမ်းပလိတ်:Fake citation needed template အတွက် {{citation needed}} ကို ကြည့်ပါ။

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used. As with other citation templates, this template can be used in a footnote (between <ref></ref> codes or in a section that lists sources.

If the correct parameters are used, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}, with one important exception: By default, this Citation template uses commas in places where the Cite templates use periods (full stops) by default; either type of template can use periods (full stops) or commas by using an optional parameter. Also, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so). Regardless of which or whether citation templates are used, citation form should be consistent throughout an article.

All parameter names must be lowercase.

Simple citation[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

This section covers the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with the author parameter.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n ၁] when the url was accessed.

Example[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| id        = {{OL|7120924W}}
}}
Turner၊ Orsamus (1851)၊ History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve၊ Rochester, New York: William Alling၊ တမ်းပလိတ်:OL

Full citation parameters[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi_inactivedate =
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  = ,
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Syntax[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

If non-hyphenated aliases of parameters with hyphens are defined, they exist only for legacy support (and are subject to become unsupported in the future); therefore, to streamline the appearance and improve consistency, select the hyphenated variant when adding parameters to a citation template and also consider switching already present non-hyphenated parameters to their hyphenated equivalents at the same time.

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/sep comma

COinS[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc., should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Note: This table of metadata is displayed for all Citation Style 1 templates. Not all of these parameters are supported by every CS1 template. Some of these parameters are mutually exclusive, some are aliases of another parameter, and some require other parameters to be present. Please refer to each template's documentation for a full list of supported parameters, their aliases, and their dependencies.

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |script-chapter=, |contribution=, |script-contribution=, |entry=, |script-entry=, |article=, |script-article=, |section=, |script-section=
  • |title=, |script-title=, |book-title=, |booktitle=
  • |publication-place=, |place=, |location=, |publicationplace=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=, |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |institution=
  • |url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |section-url=, |chapterurl=, |contributionurl=, |sectionurl=
  • |author-last=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |author-surname=, |author-surname#=, |author#-surname=, |last=, |last#=, |surname=, |surname#=, |author=, |author#=, |subject=, |subject#=, |host=, |host#=
  • |author-first=, |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |author-given=, |author-given#=, |author#-given=, |first=, |first#=, |given=, |given#=
  • |degree=
  • |arxiv=, |bibcode=, |biorxiv=, |citeseerx=, |doi=, |eissn=, |eprint=, |hdl=, |isbn=, |issn=, |jfm=, |jstor=, |lccn=, |message-id=, |mr=, |oclc=, |osti=, |pmc=, |pmid=, |rfc=, |ssrn=, |s2cid=, |zbl=

Deprecated[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

အကူအညီ:CS1 အမှားများ

In addition to the above list(s) of deprecated and removed parameters, all non-hyphenated aliases of parameters with hyphens are discouraged to be used in citation templates and are kept only for legacy support. They are subject to becoming deprecated and unsupported in the future as well. To streamline the appearance and improve consistency across the project, these variants should no longer be used when adding parameters to citation templates. Instead, select the hyphenated parameter variants and also consider switching other non-hyphenated parameters, which may be present in a citation already, to their hyphenated equivalents at the same time.

Description[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Authors[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn, but not the other way around). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-style: accepts a limited list of keywords as value; when set to amp, ampersand, or &, inserts an ampersand between the last two names in a name list; when set to and, inserts the conjunction 'and' between the last two names of a name list; when set to vancdisplays name lists in Vancouver style when the lists use the last/first forms of name parameters. Alias: name-list-format (deprecated)
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn, but not the other way around). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or တမ်းပလိတ်:Paren styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Editors[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/editor

Title[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/title တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/chapter တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/type တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/language

Date[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/date

Periodical[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/journal

Publisher[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/publisher

Edition, series, volume[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/edition တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/series တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/volume

In-source locations[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/pages

URL[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/url

Chapter URL[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/chapterurl

Anchor[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/ref2

Identifiers[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/id1 တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/id2

Quote[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/quote

Laysummary[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/lay

Display options[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/display

Subscription or registration required[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation Style documentation/registration

Examples[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Books[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln၊ A.; Washington၊ G. & Adams၊ J. (2007)၊ All the Presidents' NamesXII (2nd ed.)၊ Home Base, New York: The Pentagon Cite uses deprecated parameter |lastauthoramp= (အကူအညီ)

Web[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
}}
"NPS Focus"National Register of Historic PlacesNational Park ServiceNovember 30, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995)၊ Earth's AtmosphereNational Aeronautics and Space Administration၊ October 13, 2007 တွင် မူရင်း အား မော်ကွန်းတင်ပြီးOctober 25, 2007 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill၊ Marvin S. (1976)၊ "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF)BYU Studies12 (2): 1–8
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–61
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern၊ M,; Elias၊ J,; et al. (1981)၊ "The dimensions of DNA in solution"၊ J Mol Biol152 (1): 153–61၊ doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1PMID 7338906CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879

| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith၊ Joseph III (October 1, 1879)၊ "Last Testimony of Sister Emma"The Saints' Herald၊ Plano, IL၊ 26 (19)၊ p. 289
Conference paper
{{Citation
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| chapter-format = PDF
}}
Sullivan၊ D.B. (2001)၊ "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF)2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.၊ National Institute of Standards and Technology

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876

| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon၊ Emma Smith (March 27, 1876)၊ "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim"၊ in Vogel၊ Dan (ed.)၊ Early Mormon Documents1၊ Signature Books (published 1996)၊ ISBN 1-56085-072-8
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel၊ Dan, ed. (1996)၊ Early Mormon Documents1၊ Signature Books၊ ISBN 1-56085-072-8
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer၊ Martin (1999)၊ "Bernard Lewis"၊ in Boyd၊ Kelley (ed.)၊ Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing1၊ London: Fitzroy Dearborn၊ pp. 719–720
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd၊ Kelley, ed. (1999)၊ "Bernard Lewis"Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing1၊ London: Fitzroy Dearborn၊ pp. 719–720

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight၊ Joseph, Sr. (1833)၊ Jessee၊ Dean (ed.)၊ "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF)BYU Studies (published 1976)၊ 17 (1): 35
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith၊ Philip (September 5, 1872)၊ Written at Lincoln County, Nevada၊ Toohy၊ Dennis J. (ed.)၊ "Mountain Meadows Massacre"Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit)၊ Corinne, Utah (published September 24, 1872)၊ 5 (252): 1

Press release[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day၊ Apple IncApril 10, 2010 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီးin the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3

Citing patents[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Parameters (all are optional)[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
တမ်းပလိတ်:Citation/patent

Anchored citations[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none (in contrast, other Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}} do not create an anchor by default). You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930)၊ Civilization and Its Discontents

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright၊ Thomas; Evans၊ R. H. (1851)၊ Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray၊ London: Henry G. Bohn၊ OCLC 59510372

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

  1. The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include: Dates should not be linked in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

Template Data[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

အောက်ပါအချက်အလက်များမှာ အင်္ဂလိပ်ဝီကီပီးဒီးယားရှိ ရုပ်မြင်တည်းဖြတ်သူ (VisualEditor) ကဲ့သို့သော ကိရိယာများကို မြန်မာဝီကီပီးဒီးယားတွင် အသုံးပြုလာနိုင်သည့် အနာဂတ်ကို ရည်ရွယ်၍ အင်္ဂလိပ်ဝီကီပီးဒီးယားရှိ တမ်းပလိတ်အချက်အလက်များ (TemplateData) စီမံကိန်းပုံစံရည်ရွယ်၍ မှတ်တမ်းမှတ်ရာ ပြုလုပ်ထားခြင်း ဖြစ်သည်။ ၎င်းကိရိယာများကို အသုံးမပြုသေးသည့်တိုင် ကွန်ပျူတာပရိုဂရမ်ရေးခြင်း (computer programming) နှင့် ပတ်သက်၍ အနည်းငယ်မျှသာ နားလည်သူများပင် ရှင်းရှင်းလင်းလင်းမြင်စေရန် အကျဉ်းချုပ်သဘော အသုံးပြုနိုင်သည်။

ကိုးကားခြင်း

Syntax error in JSON.

တမ်းပလိတ်:UF-COinS

တမ်းပလိတ်:Wikipedia referencing