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The Sukhothai Kingdom (ထိုင်း: ราชอาณาจักรสุโขทัย (pronunciation)) was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand. The Kingdom existed from 1238 until 1438. The old capital, now 12 km outside of New Sukhothai in Tambon Mueang Kao, is in ruins and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage historical park.
Liberation from Lavo[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Prior to the 13th century, Tai kingdoms had existed on the northern highlands including the Ngoenyang (centered on Chiang Saen; predecessor of Lanna) kingdom and the Heokam (centered on Chiang Hung, modern Jinghong in China) kingdom of Tai Lue people. Sukhothai had been a trade center and part of Lavo, which was under the domination of the Khmer Empire. The migration of Tai people into upper Chao Phraya valley was somewhat gradual.
Modern historians stated that the secession of Sukhothai from the Khmer empire began as early as 1180 during the reign of Po Khun Sri Naw Namthom who was the ruler of Sukhothai and the peripheral city of Sri Satchanalai (now a part of Sukhothai Province as Amphoe). Sukhothai had enjoyed a substantial autonomy until it was re-conquered around 1180 by the Mons of Lavo under Khomsabad Khlonlampong.
Two brothers, Po Khun Bangklanghao and Po Khun Phameung (Po Khun was a Siamese title of high nobility) took Sukhothai from Mon hands in 1239. Bangklanghao ruled Sukhothai as Sri Indraditya – and began the Phra Ruang Dynasty - he expanded his primordial kingdom to the bordering cities. At the end of his reign in 1257, the Sukhothai kingdom covered the entire Upper Chao Phraya valley.
Traditional Thai historians considered the foundation of the Sukhothai kingdom as the beginning of their nation because little was known about the kingdoms prior to Sukhothai. Modern historical studies demonstrate that Thai history began before Sukhothai. Yet the foundation of Sukhothai is still a celebrated event.
Expansions under Ramkamhaeng[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
ဖိုးခွန်ပန့်မိုင်း (Pho Khun Ban Muang) နှင့် သူ၏ အစ်ကို ရမ်းခမ်းဟဲန် (Ram Khamhaeng) တို့သည် သောက္ကတဲနိုင်ငံတော် ကို တိုးချဲ့ကြသည်။ To the south, Ramkamhaeng subjugated the kingdom of Supannabhum and Sri Thamnakorn (Tambralinga) and, through Tambralinga, adopted Theravada as state religion. Traditional history described the extension of Sukhothai in a great fashion and the accuracy of these claims is disputed. To the north, Ramkamhaeng put Phrae and Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) under tribute.
To the west, Ramkhamhaeng helped the Mons under Wareru (who is said to have eloped with Ramkamhaeng’s daughter) to free themselves from Pagan control and established a kingdom at Martaban (they later moved to Pegu). So, Thai historians considered the Kingdom of Martaban a Sukhothai tributary. However, in practice, such Sukhothai domination may not have extended that far.
With regard to culture, Ramkhamhaeng requested the monks from Sri Thamnakorn to propagate the Theravada religion in Sukhothai. In 1283, the Thai script was invented by Ramkamhaeng, formulating into the controversial Ramkamhaeng Stele discovered by Mongkut 600 years later.
It was also this time that the first relation with Yuan Dynasty was formulated and Sukhothai began sending trade missions to China. The well-known exported good of Sukhothai was the Sangkalok (Song Dynasty pottery) – the only period that Siam produced Chinese-styled ceramics and fell out of use by the 14th century.
ဆူခိုထိုင်း၏ဩဇာတိုတောင်းခဲ့သည်။ ရာမခမ်ဟိန်နတ်ရွာစံပြီးနောက် သောက္ကတဲနယ်မြေများပြိုကွဲခဲ့သည်။ Ramkhamhaeng was succeeded by his son Loethai. The vassal kingdoms, first Uttaradit in the north, then soon after the Laotian kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane (Wiangchan), liberated themselves from their overlord. In 1319 the Mon state to the west broke away, and in 1321 Lanna placed Tak, one of the oldest towns under the control of Sukhothai, under its control. To the south the powerful city of Suphanburi also broke free early in the reign of Loethai. Thus the kingdom was quickly reduced to its former local importance only. Meanwhile, Ayutthaya rose in strength, and finally in 1378 King Thammaracha II had to submit to this new power.
၁၃၇၈တွင်အယုဒ္ဓယတပ်များကျူးကျော်ရောက်ရှိလာပြီးသောက္ကတဲကို ယင်း၏ဩဇာအောက်သွတ်သွင်းလိုက်သည်။ Suffering the urban decline, Luethai moved the capital to Pitsanulok.
In 1424, after the death of Sailuethai, Paya Ram and Paya Banmeung the two brothers fought for the throne. Nagarindrathirat of Ayutthaya intervened and further divided the kingdom between the two. Their sister had married to Borommaracha II of Ayutthaya and produced a son, Prince Ramesuan. When Borommapan died in 1446 without any heirs, the throne passed to Ramesuan or Trailokanat. Ramesuan was also crowned as the King of Ayutthaya in 1448, thus began the personal union between the Kingdom of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya.
The Silajaruek Sukhothai are hundreds of stone inscriptions that form a historical record of the period. Among the most important inscriptions are Silajaruek Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng (Stone Inscription of King Ramkhamhaeng), Silajaruek Wat Srichum (an account on history of the region itself and of Srilanka), and Silajaruek Wat Pamamuang (a Politico-Religious record of King Loethai).
The kings of Sukhothai[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Comments: Sukhothai in Thai historiography[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Sukhothai story was narrated into Thailand's "national history" in late 19th century by King Mongkut, Rama IV, as a historical work presented to the British diplomatic mission. King Mongkut is considered as the champion of Sukhothai narrative history, based on his find of the Number One Stone Inscription, the 'first evidence' telling the history of Sukhothai.
From then on, as a part of modern nation building process, modern national Siamese or Thai history comprises the history of Sukhothai. Sukhothai was said to be the 'first national capital', followed by Ayutthaya, Thonburi until Rattanakosin or today Bangkok. Sukhothai history was crucial among Siam/ Thailand's 'modernists', both 'conservative' and 'revolutionary'. Rama IV (King Mongkut) said that he found 'the first Stone Inscription' in Sukhothai, telling story of Sukhothai's origin, heroic kings such as Ramkhamhaeng, administrative system and other developments, considered as the 'prosperous time' of the kingdom.
Sukhothai history became important even after the Revolution of 1932. Researches and writings on Sukhothai history were abundant. Details derived from the inscription were studied and 'theorized'. One of the most well-known topics was Sukhothai's 'democracy' rule. Story of the close relationship between king and his people, vividly described as 'father-son' relationship, the 'seed' of Thai Democracy. However the change in ruling style took place when later society embraced 'foreign' tradition, Khmer's Angkor tradition, influenced by Hinduism and 'mystic' Mahayana Buddhism. The story of Sukhothai became the model of 'freedom'. Jit Bhumisak, a 'revolutionary' scholar, also saw Sukhothai period as the beginning of Thai people's liberation movement from foreign ruler, Angkor.
During military rule, from 1950s, Sukhothai was placed in Thai national curriculum. Sukhothai became model of 'father-son' rule, described as 'Thai Democracy', free from 'foreign ideology'; Angkorian tradition compared to communism. Other Sukhothai aspects were investigated seriously, such as commoner and slave status, and economic situation. These topics, said, were on stage of ideological thoughts fighting during the Cold war and civil insurgency times in 1960-1970s.
သောက္ကတဲ(ဆူခိုထိုင်း)သည် ထိုင်းနိုင်ငံဟူ၍ဖြစ်လာမည့်မြေပေါ်တွင် ရှမ်းတို့၏ပထမဆုံးမြို့ပြနိုင်ငံဖြစ်သည်။ မွန်ဂိုတို့ကြောင့် နန်ချောင်နိုင်ငံပျက်စီးပြီးနောက် ရှမ်းတို့သည် တောင်ဖက်သို့အလုံးအရင်းဖြင့်ဆုတ်ခွာလာခဲ့သည်။ ရှိရင်းစွဲ ပရပထုံ၊ ဟရိဘုဉ္ဇ၊ ဒွာရာဝတီစသည့်မွန်မြို့ပြနိုင်ငံများကိုတိုက်ခိုက်သိမ်းယူပြီး သောက္ကတဲ၊ ဇင်းမယ်(လန်နာ)စသည့်နိုင်ငံများကိုထူထောင်ကြသည်။ မဂဒူးအမည်ရှိ သောက္ကတဲမင်း၏ သားမက်ဖြစ်သူ မွန်-ရှမ်းကပြားတစ်ယောက်သည် ဟံသာဝတီနိုင်ငံကိုထူထောင်ခဲ့သည်။ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတွင်ပုဂံနိုင်ငံတော်ပျက်စီးပြီးနောက် အင်းဝရှမ်းများနှင့်ဟံသာဝတီမွန်များအနှစ် ၄၀ စစ်ဖြစ်ပွားနေချိန်တွင် သောက္ကတဲသည်အင်အားတောင့်တင်းခဲ့သည်။ သောက္ကတဲရှမ်းတို့သည် ဟံသာဝတီကိုမကြာခဏလာရောက်တိုက်ခိုက်ခဲ့သည်။ နောက်ပိုင်းတွင်ထပ်မံပေါ်ထွန်းလာသော အယုဒ္ဂယက ပိုမိုအင်အားကြီးမားလာပြီးသောက္ကတဲကိုသိမ်းယူခဲ့သဖြင့် သောက္ကတဲခေတ်ကုန်ဆုံးခဲ့သည်။