ဤဆောင်းပါးကို မြန်မာဘာသာသို့ ပြန်ဆိုရန် လိုအပ်နေသေးသည်။
|A USAF B-2 Spirit in flight|
|အဆင့်||Stealth Strategic bomber|
|မူလရင်းမြစ် နိုင်ငံ||United States|
|ထုပ်လုပ်သူ||Northrop Corporation |
|ပထမဆုံး ပျံသန်း||17 July 1989|
|ပင်မ အသုံးပြုသူ||United States Air Force|
|ပရိုဂရမ် ကုန်ကျ||US$44.75 billion (through 2004),|
$737 million (1997 cost for each aircraft)
ဘီ-၂ ကိုယ်ပျောက်ဗုံးကြဲလေယာဉ်သည် အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထောင်စု၏မဟာဗျူဟာမြောက်ဗုံးကြဲလေယာဉ်ဖြစ်သည်။ လေယာဉ်ပစ်လက်နက်များထူထပ်သည့်နေရာများသို့ထိုးဖောက်ဝင်ရောက်နိုင်ရန်အတွက် ရေဒါဖမ်းနိုင်စွမ်းနည်းပါးသည့် စတဲလ့်နည်းပညာဖြင့် ပုံစံထုတ်ထားသည်။ သမားရိုးကျလက်နက်များအပြင်နယူကလီးယားလက်နက်များကိုလည်းတင်ဆောင်နိုင်သည်။ ယာဉ်မောင်းနှစ်ဦးပါဝင်ပြီး ပေါင်၅၀၀(၂၃၀ကီလိုဂရမ်)လေးသည့် JDAM GPSအမျိုးအစားပဲ့ထိန်းဗုံး အလုံး၈၀ သို့မဟုတ် ပေါင် ၂,၄၀၀(၁,၁၀၀ကီလိုဂရမ်)လေးသည့် B83 နယူကလီးယားဗုံး၁၆ လုံးတင်ဆောင်နိုင်သည်။ ဘီ-၂ လေယာဉ်သည် ကိုယ်ပျောက်လေယာဉ်အမျိုးအစားထဲတွင် ကြီးမားသော ဝေဟင်မှမြေပြင်ပစ် standoff weaponဒုံးပျံသယ်ဆောင်နိုင်သော တစ်ခုတည်းသောလေယာဉ်ဖြစ်သည်။
Development originally started under the "Advanced Technology Bomber" (ATB) project during the Carter administration, and its performance was one of the reasons for his cancellation of the B-1 Lancer. ATB continued during the Reagan administration, but worries about delays in its introduction led to the reinstatement of the B-1 program as well. Program costs rose throughout development. Designed and manufactured by Northrop Grumman with assistance from Boeing, the cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million (in 1997 dollars). Total procurement costs averaged $929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support. The total program cost including development, engineering and testing, averaged $2.1 billion per aircraft in 1997.
Because of its considerable capital and operational costs, the project was controversial in the U.S. Congress and among the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The winding-down of the Cold War in the latter portion of the 1980s dramatically reduced the need for the aircraft, which was designed with the intention of penetrating Soviet airspace and attacking high-value targets. During the late 1980s and 1990s, Congress slashed initial plans to purchase 132 bombers to 21. In 2008, a B-2 was destroyed in a crash shortly after takeoff, and the crew ejected safely. A total of 20 B-2s remain in service with the United States Air Force.
Though originally designed primarily as a nuclear bomber, the B-2 was first used in combat to drop conventional bombs on Serbia during the Kosovo War in 1998, and saw continued use during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. B-2s were also used during the 2011 Libyan civil war.
In the mid-1970s the search for a new U.S. strategic bomber to replace the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress was underway, to no avail. First the B-70 and then the B-1A were canceled after only a few of each aircraft were built. The B-70 was intended to fly above and beyond defensive interceptor aircraft, only to find these same attributes made it especially vulnerable to surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). The B-1 attempted to avoid SAMs by flying close to the ground to use terrain to mask its radar signature, only to face a new generation of interceptors with look-down/shoot-down capabilities that could attack them from above.
By the mid-1970s, it was becoming clear that there was a different way to avoid missiles and intercepts; known today as "stealth"; the concept was to build an aircraft with an airframe that deflected or absorbed radar signals so that little was reflected back to the radar unit. An aircraft having stealth characteristics would be able to fly nearly undetected and could be attacked only by weapons and systems not relying on radar. Although such possibilities existed such as human observation, their relatively short detection range allowed most aircraft to fly undetected by defenses, especially at night.
In 1974, DARPA requested information from U.S. aviation firms about the largest radar cross-section of an aircraft that would remain effectively invisible to radars. Initially, Northrop and McDonnell Douglas were selected for further development. Lockheed had experience in this field due to developing the Lockheed A-12 and SR-71, which included a number of stealthy features, notably its canted vertical stabilizers, the use of composite materials in key locations, and the overall surface finish in radar-absorbing paint. A key improvement was the introduction of computer models used to predict the radar reflections from flat surfaces where collected data drove the design of a "faceted" aircraft. Development of the first such designs started in 1975 with "the hopeless diamond", a model Lockheed built to test the concept.
Plans were well advanced by the summer of 1975, when DARPA started the Experimental Survivability Testbed (XST) project. Northrop and Lockheed were awarded contracts in the first round of testing. Lockheed received the sole award for the second test round in April 1976 leading to the Have Blue program.
By 1976 these programs progressed to where a long-range strategic stealth bomber appeared viable. Whereas the B-1 relied on flying around known defense sites and could only change its mission within a limited selection of pre-determined routes, a stealth bomber could fly over the Soviet Union undetected, allowing it to linger and hunt for targets rather than repeatedly entering and leaving the target zone as quickly as possible. In a nuclear exchange, this strategy permits the aircraft to wait out the initial attacks and find targets that escaped destruction by eliminating the "overkill" that was built into existing war planning.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်] Also, stealth characteristics negated prior requirements for high speed dash capabilities and extensive electronic warfare suites for protection.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်]
Carter was aware of these developments during 1977, and it appears to have been one of the major reasons the B-1 was canceled. Further studies were ordered in early 1978, by which point the Have Blue platform had flown and proven the concepts. During the 1980 presidential election in 1979, Ronald Reagan repeatedly stated that Carter was weak on defense, and used the B-1 as a prime example. In return, on 22 August 1980, the Carter administration publicly disclosed that the United States Department of Defense (DoD) was working to develop stealth aircraft, including a bomber.
The Advanced Technology Bomber (ATB) began in 1979. Full development of the black project followed, and was funded under the code name "Aurora". After the evaluations of the companies' proposals, the ATB competition was narrowed to the Northrop/Boeing and Lockheed/Rockwell teams with each receiving a study contract for further work. Both teams used flying wing designs. Northrop had prior experience developing the YB-35 and YB-49 flying wing aircraft. The Northrop design was larger while the Lockheed design included a small tail.
The Northrop/Boeing team's ATB design was selected over the Lockheed/Rockwell design on 20 October 1981. The Northrop design received the designation B-2 and the name "Spirit". The bomber's design was changed in the mid-1980s when the mission profile was changed from high-altitude to low-altitude, terrain-following. The redesign delayed the B-2's first flight by two years and added about US$1 billion to the program's cost. An estimated US$23 billion was secretly spent for research and development on the B-2 by 1989. MIT scientists helped assess the mission effectiveness of the aircraft under a five-year classified contract during the 1980s.
Secrecy and espionage[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
Both during development and in service, there has been considerable importance placed to the security of the B-2 and its technologies. Staff working on the B-2 in most, if not all, capacities have to achieve a level of special-access clearance, and undergo extensive background checks carried out by a special branch of the Air Force.
For the manufacturing, a former car plant in Pico Rivera, California was acquired and heavily rebuilt; the plant's employees were sworn to complete secrecy regarding their work. To avoid the possibility of suspicion, components were typically purchased through front companies, military officials would visit out of uniform, and staff members were routinely subjected to polygraph examinations. The secrecy extended so far that access to nearly all information on the program by both Government Accountability Office (GAO) and virtually all members of Congress itself was severely limited until mid-1980s.
In 1984, a Northrop employee, Thomas Cavanaugh was arrested for attempting to sell classified information to the Soviet Union; the information was taken from Northrop's Pico Rivera, California factory. Cavanaugh was eventually sentenced to life in prison and released on parole in 2001.
The B-2 was first publicly displayed on 22 November 1988 at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it was assembled. This viewing was heavily restricted, guests were not allowed to see the rear of the B-2. However, Aviation Week editors found that there were no airspace restrictions over the presentation area and took photographs of the aircraft's then-secret planform and suppressed engine exhausts from above, to the USAF's disappointment. The B-2's first public flight was on 17 July 1989 from Palmdale.
In October 2005 Noshir Gowadia, a design engineer who worked on the B-2's propulsion system, was arrested for selling B-2 related classified information to foreign countries. On 9 August 2010, Gowadia was convicted in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii on 14 of 17 charges against him. On 24 January 2011, Gowadia was sentenced to 32 years in prison.
Program costs and procurement[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
A procurement of 132 aircraft was planned in the mid-1980s, but was later reduced to 75. By the early 1990s, the Soviet Union dissolved, effectively eliminating the Spirit's primary Cold War mission. Under budgetary pressures and Congressional opposition, in his 1992 State of the Union Address, President George H.W. Bush announced B-2 production would be limited to 20 aircraft. In 1996, however, the Clinton administration, though originally committed to ending production of the bombers at 20 aircraft, authorized the conversion of a 21st bomber, a prototype test model, to Block 30 fully operational status at a cost of nearly $500 million.
The program was the subject of public controversy for its cost to American taxpayers. In 1996, the General Accounting Office (GAO) disclosed that the USAF's B-2 bombers "will be, by far, the most costly bombers to operate on a per aircraft basis", costing over three times as much as the B-1B (US$9.6 million annually) and over four times as much as the B-52H ($US6.8 million annually). In September 1997, each hour of B-2 flight necessitated 119 hours of maintenance in turn. Comparable maintenance needs for the B-52 and the B-1B are 53 and 60 hours respectively for each hour of flight. A key reason for this cost is the provision of air-conditioned hangars large enough for the bomber's 172 ft (52.4 m) wingspan, which are needed to maintain the aircraft's stealthy properties, particularly its "low-observable" stealthy skins. Maintenance costs are about $3.4 million a month for each aircraft.
The total "military construction" cost related to the program was projected to be US$553.6 million in 1997 dollars. The cost to procure each B-2 was US$737 million in 1997 dollars, based only on a fleet cost of US$15.48 billion. The procurement cost per aircraft as detailed in GAO reports, which include spare parts and software support, was $929 million per aircraft in 1997 dollars.
The total program cost projected through 2004 was US$44.75 billion in 1997 dollars. This includes development, procurement, facilities, construction, and spare parts. The total program cost averaged US$2.13 billion per aircraft. The B-2 may cost up to $135,000 per flight hour to operate in 2010, which is about twice that of the B-52 and B-1.
In its consideration of the fiscal year 1990 defense budget, the House Armed Services Committee trimmed $800 million from the B-2 research and development budget, while at the same time staving off a motion to end the project. Opposition in committee and in Congress was mostly broad and bipartisan, with Congressmen Ron Dellums (D-CA), John Kasich (R-OH), and John G. Rowland (R-CT) authorizing the motion to end the project, others in the Senate, such as Jim Exon (D-NE) and John McCain (R-AZ), also opposing the project.
The escalating cost of the B-2 program and evidence of flaws in the aircraft's ability to elude detection by radar, were among factors that drove opposition to continue the program. At the peak production period specified in 1989, the schedule called for spending US$7 billion to $8 billion per year in 1989 dollars, something Committee Chair Les Aspin (D-WI) said "won't fly financially." In 1990, the Department of Defense accused Northrop of using faulty components in the flight control system; the threat posed by bird ingestion potentially damaging engine fan blades also required redesigning.
In time, a number of prominent members of Congress began to oppose the program's expansion, including former Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry, who cast votes against the B-2 in 1989, 1991 and 1992 while a U.S. Senator, representing Massachusetts. By 1992, Republican President George H.W. Bush called for the cancellation of the B-2 and promised to cut military spending by 30% in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union.
In May 1995, based on its 1995 Heavy Bomber Force Study, the DOD determined that additional B-2 procurements would exacerbate efforts to develop and implement long term recapitalization plans for the U.S. Air Force bomber force.[ကိုးကားချက်လိုသည်] In October 1995, former Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, General Mike Ryan, and former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General John Shalikashvili, strongly recommended against Congressional action to fund the purchase of any additional B-2s, arguing that to do so would require unacceptable cuts in existing conventional and nuclear-capable aircraft, and that the military had greater priorities in spending a limited budget.
Some B-2 advocates argued that procuring twenty additional aircraft would save money because B-2s would be able to deeply penetrate anti-aircraft defenses and use low-cost, short-range attack weapons rather than expensive standoff weapons. However, in 1995, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and its Director of National Security Analysis, found that additional B-2s would reduce the cost of expended munitions by less than US$2 billion in 1995 dollars during the first two weeks of a conflict, in which the Air Force predicted bombers would make their greatest contribution; a small fraction of the US$26.8 billion (in 1995 dollars) life cycle cost that the CBO projected an additional 20 B-2s would cost.
In 1997, as Ranking Member of the House Armed Services Committee and National Security Committee, Congressman Ron Dellums (D-CA), a long-time opponent of the bomber, cited five independent studies and offered an amendment to that year's defense authorization bill to cap production of the bombers to the existing 21 aircraft; the amendment was narrowly defeated. Nonetheless, Congress did not approve funding for the purchase of any additional B-2 bombers.
A number of upgrade packages have been applied to the B-2. In July 2008, the B-2's onboard computing architecture was extensively redesigned, it now incorporates a new integrated processing unit (IPU) that communicates with systems throughout the aircraft via a newly-installed fibre optic network; a new version of the operational flight program software was also developed, legacy code was converted from the JOVIAL programming language used beforehand to C. Updates were also made to the weapon control systems to enable strikes upon non-static targets, such as moving ground vehicles.
On 29 December 2008, Air Force officials awarded a US$468 million contract to Northrop Grumman to modernize the B-2 fleet's radars. Changing the radar's frequency was required as the U.S. Department of Commerce has sold that radio spectrum to another operator. In July 2009, it was reported that the B-2 had successfully passed a major USAF audit. In 2010, it was made public that the Air Force Research Laboratory had developed a new material to be used on the part of the wing trailing edge subject to engine exhaust, replacing existing material that quickly degraded.
In July 2010, political analyst Rebecca Grant speculated that when the B-2 becomes unable to reliably penetrate enemy defenses, the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II may take on its strike/interdiction mission, carrying B61 nuclear bomb as a tactical bomber. However, in March 2012, the Pentagon announced a $2 billion, 10 year-long modernization of the B-2 fleet was to begin, these upgrades would be mainly focused on replacing outdated avionics and equipment.
It was reported in 2011 that the Pentagon was evaluating an unmanned stealth bomber, characterized as a "mini-B-2", as a potential replacement in the near future. In 2012, Air Force Chief of Staff General Norton Schwartz stated the B-2's 1980s-era stealth would make it less survivable in future contested airspaces, so the USAF is to proceed with the Next-Generation Bomber despite overall budget cuts. The Next-Generation Bomber was estimated, in 2012, to have an projected overall cost of $55 billion.
The B-2 Spirit was developed to take over the USAF's vital penetration missions, able to travel deep into enemy territory to deploy their ordnance, which could include nuclear weapons. The B-2 is a flying wing aircraft, meaning it has no fuselage or tail. The blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 significant advantages over previous bombers. Low observability provides a greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing both range and field of view for onboard sensors. The U.S. Air Force reports its range as approximately ၆,၀၀၀ ရေမိုင် (၆,၉၀၀ မိုင်; ၁၁,၀၀၀ ကီလိုမီတာ).
Due to the aircraft's complex flight characteristics and design requirements to maintain very-low visibility to multiple means of detection, both the development and construction of the B-2 required pioneering use of computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies. Northrop Grumman is the B-2's prime contractor; other contributing subcontractors include Boeing, Raytheon (formerly Hughes Aircraft), G.E. and Vought Aircraft. The B-2 bears a resemblance to earlier Northrop aircraft, the YB-35 and YB-49 were both flying wing bombers that had been cancelled in development in the early 1950s; allegedly for political reasons.
ဘီ-၂တွင် လေယာဉ်သား၂ဦး လိုက်ပါနိုင်သည်။ ယာဉ်မောင်းထိုင်ခုံမှာ ဘယ်ဖက်တွင်ရှိပြီး ကြီးကြပ်သူက ညာဖက်တွင်ထိုင်သည်။ လိုအပ်ပါက တတိယလူလိုက်ပါနိုင်ရန်လည်းစီစဉ်ထားသည်။  နှိုင်းယှဉ်ရလျှင် ဘီ-၁ဘီလေယာဉ်တွင် အမှုထမ်း ၄ဦးလိုက်ပါနိုင်ပြီး ဘီ-၅၂လေယာဉ်တွင် အမှုထမ်း ၅ ဦး လိုက်ပါနိုင်သည်။  ဘီ-၂သည် အဆင့်မြင့်အလိုအလျောက်စနစ်များတပ်ဆင်ထားသည်။ အခြားနှစ်ယောက်စီးလေယာဉ်များနှင့်မတူသည့်အချက်မှာ တစ်ဦးကလေယာဉ်မောင်းနှင်နေချိန်တွင် တစ်ဦးကအိပ်စက်အနားယူနိုင်သည်၊ အိမ်သာတက်နိုင်သည်၊ ပူပူနွေးနွေးအစားအစာပြင်ဆင်စားသောက်နိုင်သည်။ ; extensive sleep cycle and fatigue research was conducted to improve crew performance on long sorties.
The B-2, in the envisaged Cold War scenario, was to perform deep-penetrating nuclear strike missions, making use of its stealthy capabilities to avoid detection and interception throughout missions. There are two internal bomb bays in which munitions are stored either on a rotary launcher or two bomb-racks; the carriage of the weapons loadouts internally results in less radar visibility than externally mounting of munitions. Nuclear ordnance includes the B61 and B83 nuclear bombs; the AGM-129 ACM cruise missile was also intended for use on the B-2 platform.
It was decided, in light of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, to equip the B-2 for convention precision attacks as well as for the strategic role of nuclear-strike. The B-2 features a sophisticated GPS-Aided Targeting System (GATS) that uses the aircraft's APQ-181 synthetic aperture radar to map out targets prior to deployment of GPS-aided bombs (GAMs), later superseded by the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM). In the B-2's original configuration, up to 16 GAMs or JDAMs could be deployed; an upgrade program in 2004 raised the maximum carriable capacity to 80 JDAMs.
The B-2 has various conventional weapons in its arsenal, able to equip Mark 82 and Mark 84 bombs, CBU-87 Combined Effects Munitions, GATOR mines, and the CBU-97 Sensor Fuzed Weapon. In July 2009, Northrop Grumman reported the B-2 was compatible with the equipment necessary to deploy the ၃၀,၀၀၀ lb (၁၄,၀၀၀ kg) Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP), which is intended to attack reinforced bunkers; up to two MOPs could be equipped in the B-2's bomb bays, the B-2 is the only platform compatible with the MOP as of 2012. As of 2011, the AGM-158 JASSM cruise missile is an upcoming standoff munition to be deployed on the B-2 and other platforms.
ဘီ-၂ အား ယခင်ဗုံးကြဲလေယာဉ်များထက်ပိုမိုထိရောက်စေရန်အတွက် ယင်းဒီဇိုင်းတွင် ခေတ်ပါ်ပျံသန်းခြင်းနည်းစနစ်များကို ပေါင်းစပ်ထားသည်။, these have been modified and improved in light of the switch to conventional warfare missions. The B-2 features the low probability of intercept AN/APQ-181 multi-mode radar, a fully digital navigation system that is integrated with terrain-following radar and Global Positioning System (GPS) guidance, and a Defensive Management System (DMS) to inform the flight crew against possible threats. The onboard DMS is capable of automatically assessing the detection capabilities of identified threats and indicated targets.
For safety and fault-detection purposes, an on-board test system is interlinked with the majority of avionics on the B-2 to continuously monitor the performance and status of thousands of components and consumables; it also provides post-mission servicing instructions for ground crews. In 2008, many of the standalone distributed computers on board the B-2, including the primary flight management computer, were being replaced by a single integrated system.
In addition to periodic software upgrades and the introduction of new radar-absorbent materials across the fleet, the B-2 has had several major upgrades to its avionics and combat systems. For battlefield communications, both Link-16 and a high frequency satellite link have been installed, compatibility with various new munitions has been undertaken, and the AN/APQ-181 radar's operational frequency was shifted in order to avoid interference with other operator's equipment. The upgraded radar features entirely replaced arrays by those of a newer design, the AN/APQ-181 is now an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar.
In order to address the inherent flight instability of a flying wing aircraft, the B-2 uses a complex quadruplex computer-controlled fly-by-wire flight control system, that can automatically manipulate flight surfaces and settings without direct pilot inputs in order to maintain aircraft stability. The flight computer receives information on external conditions such as the aircraft's current air speed and angle of attack via pitot-static sensing plates, as opposed to traditional pitot tubes which would negatively affect the aircraft's stealth capabilities. The flight actuation system incorporates both hydraulic and electrical servoactuated components, it was designed with a high level of redundancy and fault-diagnostic capabilities.
Northrop had investigated several means of applying directional control that would least infringe on the aircraft's radar profile, eventually settling on a combination of split brake-rudders and differential thrust. Engine thrust became a key element of the B-2's aerodynamic design process early on; thrust not only affects drag and lift but pitching and rolling motions as well. Four pairs of control surfaces are located along the wing's trailing edge; while most surfaces are used throughout the aircraft's flight envelope, the inner elevons are normally only in use at slow speeds, such as landing. To avoid potential contact damage during takeoff and to provide a nose-down pitching attitude, all of the elevons remain drooped during takeoff until a high enough airspeed has been attained.
The B-2's low-observable, or "stealth", characteristics enable the safe penetration of sophisticated anti-aircraft defenses and to attack even heavily defended targets. This stealth comes from a combination of reduced acoustic, infrared, visual and radar signatures to evade the various detection systems that could be used to detect and be used to direct attacks against an aircraft. The majority of the B-2 is made out of a carbon-graphite composite material that is stronger than steel and lighter than aluminium, perhaps most crucially it also absorbs a significant amount of radar energy. Reportedly, the B-2 Spirit has a radar signature of about 0.1 m2.
In contrast to the flat surfaces of the earlier F-117 Nighthawk, the B-2 is composed of many curved and rounded surfaces across its exposed airframe to deflect radar beams, additional reduction in its radar signature was achieved by the use of various radar-absorbent materials (RAM) to absorb and neutralise radar beams. The B-2's clean, low-drag flying wing configuration not only gave it exceptional range, but was also beneficial to reducing its radar profile as well.
Another design feature is the placement of the engines, which are buried within the wing to conceal the engines' fans and minimize thermal visibility of the exhaust. The original design had tanks for a contrail-inhibiting chemical, but this was replaced in production aircraft by a contrail sensor that alerts the crew as to when they should change altitude. To reduce optical visibility during daylight operations, the B-2 is painted in an anti-reflective paint.
Innovations such as alternate high-frequency material (AHFM) and automated material application methods were also incorporated into the aircraft to enhance its radar-absorbent properties and lower maintenance requirements. In early 2004, Northrop Grumman began applying a newly-developed AHFM to operational B-2s. In order to protect the operational integrity of its sophisticated radar absorbent material and coatings, each B-2 is kept inside a climate-controlled hangar large enough to accommodate its ၁၇၂-ပေ (၅၂-မီတာ) wingspan.
The first operational aircraft, christened Spirit of Missouri, was delivered to Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, where the fleet is based, on 17 December 1993. The B-2 reached initial operational capability (IOC) on 1 January 1997. Depot maintenance for the B-2 is accomplished by U.S. Air Force contractor support and managed at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. Originally designed to deliver nuclear weapons, modern usage has shifted towards a flexible role with conventional and nuclear capability.
The B-2's combat debut was in 1999, during the Kosovo War. It was responsible for destroying 33% of selected Serbian bombing targets in the first eight weeks of U.S. involvement in the War. During this war, B-2s flew non-stop to Kosovo from their home base in Missouri and back. The B-2 was the first aircraft to deploy GPS satellite-guided JDAM "smart bombs" in combat use in Kosovo. The use of JDAMs and precision-guided munitions effectively replaced the controversial tactic of carpet-bombing, which had been harshly criticised due to it causing indiscriminate civilian casualties in prior conflicts, such as the 1991 Gulf War. On 7 May 1999, a B-2 accidentally deployed five JDAMs in a target building that was actually the Chinese Embassy, killing several staff.
The B-2 saw service in Afghanistan, striking ground targets in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. With aerial refueling support, the B-2 flew one of its longest missions to date from Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri to Afghanistan and back.
The B-2's combat use preceded a U.S. Air Force declaration of "full operational capability" in December 2003. The Pentagon's Operational Test and Evaluation 2003 Annual Report noted that the B-2's serviceability for Fiscal Year 2003 was still inadequate, mainly due to the maintainability of the B-2's low observable coatings. The evaluation also noted that the Defensive Avionics suite also had shortcomings with "pop-up threats".
During the Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom), B-2s operated from Diego Garcia and an undisclosed "forward operating location". Other sorties in Iraq have launched from Whiteman AFB. This resulted in missions lasting over 30 hours and one mission of over 50 hours. "Forward operating locations" have been previously designated as Andersen Air Force Base in Guam and RAF Fairford in the UK, where new climate controlled hangars have been constructed. B-2s have conducted 27 sorties from Whiteman AFB and 22 sorties from a forward operating location, releasing more than 1.5 million pounds of munitions, including 583 JDAM "smart bombs" in 2003.
In response to organisational issues and high-profile mistakes made within the Air Force; all of the B-2s, along with the nuclear-capable B-52s, and the Air Force's intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) were transferred to the newly-formed Air Force Global Strike Command on 1 February 2010.
In March 2011, B-2s were the first U.S. aircraft into action in Operation Odyssey Dawn, the UN mandated enforcement of the Libyan no-fly zone. Three B-2s dropped 40 bombs on a Libyan airfield in support of the UN no-fly zone. The B-2s flew directly from the U.S. mainland, being refueled by allied tanker aircraft twice on the inbound journey and twice again on the way back across the Atlantic.
In August 2011, The New Yorker reported that prior to the May 2011 U.S. special forces raid into Abbottabad, Pakistan that resulted in the Death of Osama bin Laden, U.S. officials had considered an airstrike by one or more B-2s as an alternative; an airstrike was rejected due to concerns of damage to surrounding civilian buildings.
B-2s are operated exclusively by the United States Air Force active units. It has 20 B-2s in service.
- 509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base (currently has 19 B-2s)
- 131st Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base (Missouri Air National Guard)
- 412th Test Wing, Edwards Air Force Base (currently has one B-2)
- 53d Wing, Eglin Air Force Base (former)
- 57th Wing, Nellis Air Force Base (former)
On 23 February 2008, the B-2 Spirit of Kansas, 89-0127 crashed on the runway shortly after takeoff from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. B-2 89-0127 had been operated by the 393rd Bomb Squadron, 509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, and had logged 5,176 flight hours. It was the first crash of a B-2. The two person crew ejected safely from the aircraft and survived the crash. The aircraft was completely destroyed, a hull loss valued at US$1.4 billion. After the accident, the Air Force took the B-2 fleet off operational status until clearing the fleet for flight status 53 days later on 15 April 2008. The cause of the crash was later determined to be moisture in the aircraft's Port Transducer Units during air data calibration, which distorted the information being sent to the bomber's air data system. As a result, the flight control computers calculated an inaccurate airspeed, and a negative angle of attack, causing the aircraft to pitch upward 30 degrees during takeoff.
In February 2010, another serious incident involving a B-2 occurred at Andersen AFB. The aircraft involved was AV-11 Spirit of Washington. The aircraft was severely damaged by fire while on the ground and underwent 18 months of temporary repairs in order to enable it to fly back to the mainland for more comprehensive repairs.
Aircraft on display[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
No operational B-2s have been retired by the Air Force to be put on display. However, B-2s have made periodic appearances on ground display at various air shows.
B-2 test article (s/n AT-1000), the second of two built without engines or instruments for static testing, was placed on display in 2004 at the National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio. The test article passed all structural testing requirements before the airframe failed. The Museum's restoration team spent over a year reassembling the fractured airframe. The display airframe is marked to resemble The Spirit of Ohio (S/N 82-1070), the B-2 used to test the design's ability to withstand extreme heat and cold. The exhibit features the actual Spirit of Ohio nose wheel door, with its distinctive Fire and Ice artwork, which was painted and signed by the technicians who performed the temperature testing. The restored test aircraft is on display in the museum's "Cold War Gallery".
From 1989 to 2004, the South Dakota Air and Space Museum located on the grounds of Ellsworth Air Force Base displayed the 10-short-ton (9-metric-ton) "Honda- Stealth", a 60% scale mock-up of a stealthy bomber which had been built by North American Honda in 1988 for an advertising campaign. Although not an actual replica of a B-2, the mock-up was close enough to the B-2's design to arouse suspicion that Honda had intercepted classified, top secret information, as the B-2 project was still officially classified in 1988. Honda donated the model to the museum in 1989, on condition that the model be destroyed if it was ever replaced with a different example. In 2005, when the museum received a B-1 Lancer for display (Ellsworth being a B-1 base), the museum destroyed the mock-up.
Specifications (B-2A Block 30)[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]
- အဖွဲ့သား 2
- အလျား: 69 ft (21.0 m)
- တောင်ပံထိပ်နှစ်ခု အကွာအဝေး: 172 ft (52.4 m)
- အမြင့်: 17 ft (5.18 m)
- တောင်ပံ ဧရိယာ: 5,140 ft² (478 m²)
- ကုန်မပါ အလေးချိန်: 158,000 lb (71,700 kg)
- ကုန်တင်ပြီး အလေးချိန်: 336,500 lb (152,200 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 376,000 lb (170,600 kg)
- လေယာဉ် အင်ဂျင် 4 × General Electric F118-GE-100 non-afterburning turbofans, 17,300 lbf (77 kN) each
- Fuel Capacity: 167,000 pounds (75,750 kg)
- Maximum speed: Mach 0.95 (550 knots, 630 mph, 1,010 km/h) at 40,000 ft altitude / Mach 0.95 at sea level
- Cruise speed: Mach 0.85 (487 knots, 560 mph, 900 km/h) at 40,000 ft altitude
- အကွာအဝေး 6,000 nmi (၁၁,၁၀၀ km (၆,၉၀၀ mi))
- Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,200 m)
- Wing loading: 67.3 lb/ft² (329 kg/m²)
- Thrust/weight: 0.205
|Air Vehicle No.||Block No.||USAF s/n||Formal name||Status|
|AV-1||Test/30||82-1066||Spirit of America||14 July 2000 – Active|
|AV-2||Test/30||82-1067||Spirit of Arizona||4 December 1997 – Active|
|AV-3||Test/30||82-1068||Spirit of New York||10 October 1997 – Active, Flight Test|
|AV-4||Test/30||82-1069||Spirit of Indiana||22 May 1999 – Active|
|AV-5||Test/20||82-1070||Spirit of Ohio||18 July 1997 – Active|
|AV-6||Test/30||82-1071||Spirit of Mississippi||23 May 1997 – Active|
|AV-7||10||88-0328||Spirit of Texas||21 August 1994 – Active|
|AV-8||10||88-0329||Spirit of Missouri||31 March 1994 – Active|
|AV-9||10||88-0330||Spirit of California||17 August 1994 – Active|
|AV-10||10||88-0331||Spirit of South Carolina||30 December 1994 – Active|
|AV-11||10||88-0332||Spirit of Washington||29 October 1994 – Severely damaged by fire|
|AV-12||10||89-0127||Spirit of Kansas||17 February 1995 – 23 February 2008, Crashed|
|AV-13||10||89-0128||Spirit of Nebraska||28 June 1995 – Active|
|AV-14||10||89-0129||Spirit of Georgia||14 November 1995 – Active|
|AV-15||10||90-0040||Spirit of Alaska||24 January 1996 – Active|
|AV-16||10||90-0041||Spirit of Hawaii||10 January 1996 – Active|
|AV-17||20||92-0700||Spirit of Florida||3 July 1996 – Active|
|AV-18||20||93-1085||Spirit of Oklahoma||15 May 1996 – Active|
|AV-19||20||93-1086||Spirit of Kitty Hawk||30 August 1996 – Active|
|AV-20||30||93-1087||Spirit of Pennsylvania||5 August 1997 – Active|
|AV-21||30||93-1088||Spirit of Louisiana||10 November 1997 – Active|
|AV-22 through AV-165||Cancelled|
- Related lists
- List of active United States military aircraft
- List of bomber aircraft
- List of flying wing aircraft
- List of aerospace megaprojects
- "Northrop B-2A Spirit fact sheet." Archived 28 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Mehuron, Tamar A., Assoc. Editor. "2009 USAF Almanac, Fact and Figures." Air Force Magazine, May 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- "B-2 Bomber: Cost and Operational Issues Letter Report, 14 August 1997, GAO/NSIAD-97-181." United States General Accounting Office (GAO). Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Rolfsen, Bruce. "Moisture confused sensors in B-2 crash." Air Force Times, 9 June 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- "B-2 Spirit Fact Sheet." U.S. Air Force, April 2008. Retrieved: 6 July 2008.
- Marcus, Jonathan. "Libya military operation: Who should command?" BBC News, 21 March 2011.
- Donald 2004, p. 120.
- Rao, G.A. and S.P. Mahulikar. "Integrated review of stealth technology and its role in airpower". Aeronautical Journal, v. 106 (1066), 2002, pp. 629–641.
- Crickmore and Crickmore 2003, p. 9.
- "Stealth Aircraft." Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003. Retrieved: 5 November 2012.
- Griffin and Kinnu 2007, pp. 14–15.
- Withington 2006, p. 7.
- Goodall 1992,[စာမျက်နှာ လိုအပ်]
- Pace 1999, pp. 20–27.
- Rich and Janos 1994,[စာမျက်နှာ လိုအပ်]
- Donald 2003, p. 13.
- Spick 2000, p. 339.
- Van Voorst, Bruce. "The Stealth Takes Wing." Time, 31 July 1989. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Griffin and Kinnu 2007, pp. ii–v.
- Vartaebedian, Ralph. "Defense worker loses job over his ties to India". Los Angeles Times, 16 February 1993.
- Atkinson, Rick. "Unraveling Stealth's `Black World';Questions of Cost and Mission Arise Amid Debate Over Secrecy Series: Project Senior C.J.; The Story Behind The B-2 Bomber Series Number: 2/3." Archived 16 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Washington Post, 9 October 1989.
- AP. "Stealth bomber classified documents missing." The New York Times, 24 June 1987. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Pace 1999, pp. 29–36.
- "Press Release." FBI Honolulu. Retrieved:: 1 December 2010.
- Bowes, Peter. "US engineer sold military secrets to China." BBC, 9 August 2010. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
- Foster, Peter. "Engineer jailed for selling US stealth bomber technology to China." The Telegram, 24 January 2011.
- Pace 1999, pp. 75–76.
- Graham, Bradley. "US to add one B-2 plane to 20 plane fleet." Washington Post, 22 March 1996, p. A20.
- Eden 2004, pp. 350–353.
- Capaccio, Tony. "The B-2's Stealthy Skins Need Tender, Lengthy Care." Defense Week, 27 May 1997, p. 1.
- US General Accounting Office September 1996, pp. 53, 56.
- "The Gold Plated Hangar Queen Survives." Strategyworld.com, 14 June 2010. Retrieved: 8 April 2011.
- Axe, David. "Why Can't the Air Force Build an Affordable Plane?" The Atlantic, 26 March 2012. Retrieved: 30 June 2012.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Exclusive: US Air Force combat fleet's true operational costs revealed." flightglobal.com, 26 August 2011.
- Schmitt, Eric. "Key Senate Backer of Stealth Bomber Sees It in Jeopardy." The New York Times, 14 September 1991. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Sorenson 1995, p. 168.
- "Moisture in sensors led to stealth bomber crash, Air Force report says." Kansas City Star, 5 June 2008.
- "Zell Miller's Attack on Kerry: A Little Out Of Date." Archived 14 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. FactCheck.org, 4 October 2004. Retrieved: 26 October 2004.
- Bender, Brian and John Robinson. "More Stealth Bombers Mean Less Combat Power". Defense Daily, 5 August 1997, p. 206.
- US General Accounting Office September 1996, p. 70.
- US General Accounting Office September 1996, p. 72.
- "Debate on Dellums Amendment to 1998 Defense Authorization Act." fas.org, 23 June 1997.
- McKinney, Brooks. "Air Force Completes Preliminary Design Review of New B-2 Bomber Computer Architecture." Archived 21 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Northrop Grumman, 7 July 2008. Retrieved: 8 June 2011.
- "Semantic Designs Aligns with Northrop Grumman to Modernize B-2 Spirit Bomber Software Systems". Semantic Designs. Retrieved: 8 June 2011.
- McKinney, Brooks. "Northrop Grumman Adding Mobile Targets to B-2 Bomber Capabilities." Northrop Grumman, 7 February 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- "B-2 radar modernization program contract awarded." US Air Force, 30 December 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Warwick, Graham. "USAF Awards B-2 Radar Upgrade Production." Aviation Week, 30 December 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Jennings, Gareth. "B-2 passes modernisation milestones." Janes, 24 July 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Grant, Rebecca. "Nukes for NATO." Air Force Magazine, July 2010.
- Kelley, Michael. "The Air Force Announced It's Upgrading The One Plane It Needs To Bomb Iran." Archived 12 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Business Insider, 28 March 2012.
- "Pentagon Wants Unmanned Stealth Bomber to Replace B-2." LA Times via uasvision.com, 24 March 2011.
- Schogol, Jeff. "Schwartz Defends Cost of USAF’s Next-Gen Bomber." Defense News. 29 February 2012.
- Less, Eloise. "Questions about whether the US needs another $55 billion worth of bombers." Business Insider, 27 March 2012.
- Croddy and Wirtz 2005, pp. 341–342.
- Spick 2000, pp. 340–341.
- Sweetman 2005, pp. 73–74.
- Boyne 2002, p. 466.
- Fitzsimons 1978, p. 2282.
- "B-2 Spirit page." Archived 5 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Northrop Grumman. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Tirpak, John A. "With the First B-2 Squadron." Air Force Magazine: Journal of the Air Force Association, Vol. 79, No. 4, April 1996.
- Kenagy, David N., Christopher T. Bird, Christopher M. Webber and Joseph R. Fischer. "Dextroamphetamine Use During B-2 Combat Mission." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Volume 75, Number 5, May 2004, pp. 381–386.
- Tucker 2010, p. 39.
- Moir and Seabridge 2008, p. 398.
- Tucker 2010, p. 177.
- Richardson 2001, pp. 120–121.
- Rip and Hasik 2002, p. 201.
- Rip and Hasik 2002, pp. 242–246.
- "Air Force programs: B-2." Project On Government Oversight (POGO), 16 April 2004. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Evans 2004, p. 13.
- Mayer, Daryl. "Northrop Grumman and USAF Verify Proper Fit of 30,000 lb Penetrator Weapon on B-2 Bomber." Archived 21 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. defpro.com, 22 July 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- "AGM-158 JASSM Cruise Missiles: FY 2011 Orders." Defense Industry Daily, 14 May 2011.
- Sweetman 2005, p. 73.
- Siuru 1993, p. 118.
- Page, Lewis. "Upgrade drags Stealth Bomber IT systems into the 90s." The Register, 11 July 2008.
- "AN/APQ-181 Radar System." Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Raytheon. Retrieved: 11 August 2012.
- Moir and Seabridge 2008, p. 397.
- Moir and Seabridge 2008, pp. 256–258.
- "Flight Control Actuation System Integrator for the B-2 Spirit." Moog, Retrieved: 11 August 2012.
- Chudoba 2001, p. 76.
- Chudoba 2001, pp. 201–202.
- Richardson 2001, p. 57.
- Siuru 1993, pp. 114–115.
- Croddy and Wirtz 2005, p. 342.
- Gosnell, Mariana. "Why contrails hang around." Air & Space magazine, 1 July 2007. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Lewis, Paul. "B-2 to receive maintenance boost." Flight International, 5 March 2002.
- Hart, Jim. "Northrop Grumman Applies New Coating to Operational B-2." "Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems", 19 April 2004.
- Fulghum, D.A. "First F-22 large-scale, air combat exercise wins praise and triggers surprise" (online title), "Away Game". Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 January 2007. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Pace 1999, p. 66.
- Pace 1999, p. 73.
- Hansen, Staff Sgt. Ryan. "JDAM continues to be warfighter's weapon of choice." US Air Force, 17 March 2006. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Tucker 2010, pp. 177–178.
- Rip and Hasik 2002, p. 398.
- Tucker 2010, p. 178.
- McNeil, Kirsten. "Air Force Reorganizes Nuclear Commands." armscontrol.org, December 2012.
- "US plans separate nuclear command." BBC News, 25 October 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- "Air Force Global Strike Command officials assume B-52, B-2 mission." United States Air Force, 2 February 2010.
- Chavanne, Bettina H. "USAF Creates Global Strike Command." Aviation Week, 24 October 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- Martin, David. "Crisis in Libya: U.S. bombs Qaddafi's airfields." CBS News, 20 March 2011.
- Tirpak, John A. "Bombers Over Libya." Air Force Magazine, July 2011.
- Schmidle, Nicholas. "Getting Bin Laden." The New Yorker, 8 August 2011.
- "131st Bomb Wing." 131bw.ang.af.mil. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- "B-2 Crashes on Takeoff From Guam." Aviation Week, 23 February 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
- "Air Force: Sensor moisture caused 1st B-2 crash." USA Today, 5 June 2008. Retrieved: 16 February 2009.
- "B-2 crash video." Youtube.com. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Linch, Airman 1st Class Stephen. "B-2s return to flight after safety pause." US Air Force, 21 April 2008. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
- "B-2 accident report released." US Air Force, 6 June 2008. Retrieved: 20 March 2011.
- Keerigan, Kevin. "B-2 Fire at AAFB Back in February of 2010 Was 'Horrific,' Not 'Minor'." pacificnewscenter.com, 1 September 2011. Retrieved: 5 January 2012.
- Mayer, Daryl. "Program office brings home 'wounded warrior'." Archived 20 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. wpafb.af.mil. Retrieved: 5 January 2012.
- "Factsheet: Northrop B-2 Spirit." Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 24 August 2011.
- "B-2 fact page." Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
- "Cold War Gallery." Archived 15 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 24 August 2011.
- "Honda- Stealth" Archived 21 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. wfb4.com. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
- Cissell, Bill. "Museum slices stealth display." rapidcityjournal.com, 24 October 2004. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
- Woodward, Laura. "B-1 to go on display in museum." rapidcityjournal.com, 4 February 2005. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
- Pace 1999, Appendix A.
- All 21 copies brought to Block 30 standard.
- "Air Force names final B-2 bomber 'Spirit of America'." fas.org, 14 July 200. Retrieved: 16 June 2010.
- Pace 1999, p. Appendix.
- "B-2." fas.org. Retrieved: 16 June 2010.
- "Air Force, Options to Retire of Restructure the Force would Reduce Planned Spending, NSIAD-96-192." Archived 2 August 2012 at Archive.is US General Accounting Office, September 1996.
- Boyne, Walter J. Air Warfare: an International Encyclopedia: A-L. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002. ISBN 1-57607-345-9.
- Chudoba. Bernd. Stability and Control of Conventional and Unconventional Aircraft Configurations: A Generic Approach. Stoughton, Wisconsin: Books on Demand, 2001. ISBN 3-83112-982-7.
- Crickmore, Paul and Alison J. Crickmore, "Nighthawk F-117 Stealth Fighter". North Branch, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2003. ISBN 0-76031-512-4.
- Croddy, Eric and James J. Wirtz. Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History, Volume 2. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005. ISBN 1-85109-490-3.
- Donald, David, ed. Black Jets: The Development and Operation of America's Most Secret Warplanes. Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing Inc., 2003. ISBN 1-880588-67-6.
- Donald, David. The Pocket Guide to Military Aircraft: And the World's Airforces. London: Octopus Publishing Group, 2004. ISBN 0-681-03185-9.
- Eden, Paul. "Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. New York: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Evans, Nicholas D. Military Gadgets: How Advanced Technology is Transforming Today's Battlefield – and Tomorrow's. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: FT Press, 2004. ISBN 0-1314-4021-7.
- Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, Volume 21. London: Phoebus, 1978. ISBN 0-8393-6175-0.
- Goodall, James C. "The Northrop B-2A Stealth Bomber." America's Stealth Fighters and Bombers: B-2, F-117, YF-22, and YF-23. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-609-6.
- Griffin, John and James Kinnu. B-2 Systems Engineering Case Study. Dayton, Ohio: Air Force Center for Systems Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, 2007.
- Moir, Ian and Allan G. Seabridge. Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystems Integration. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. ISBN 0-4700-5996-6.
- Pace, Steve. B-2 Spirit: The Most Capable War Machine on the Planet. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN 0-07-134433-0.
- Richardson, Doug. Stealth Warplanes. London: Salamander Books Ltd, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1051-3.
- Rich, Ben R. and Leo Janos. Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of My Years of Lockheed. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1996. ISBN 0-3167-4300-3.
- Rip, Michael Russell, and James M. Hasik. The Precision Revolution: Gps and the Future of Aerial Warfare. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2002. ISBN 1-5575-0973-5.
- Siuru, William D. Future Flight: The Next Generation of Aircraft Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 1993. ISBN 0-8306-4376-1.
- Sorenson, David, S. The Politics of Strategic Aircraft Modernization. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995 ISBN 978-0-275-95258-7.
- Spick, Mike. "B-2 Spirit", The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.
- Sweetman, Bill. "Lockheed Stealth". North Branch, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2005. ISBN 0-7603-1940-5.
- Tucker, Spencer C. The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010. ISBN 1-8510-9947-6.
- Withington, Thomas. B-1B Lancer Units in Combat. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-8417-6992-4.
- Richardson, Doug. Northrop B-2 Spirit (Classic Warplanes). New York: Smithmark Publishers Inc., 1991. ISBN 0-8317-1404-2.
- Sweetman, Bill. Inside the Stealth Bomber. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0627-3.
- Winchester, Jim, ed. "Northrop B-2 Spirit". Modern Military Aircraft (Aviation Factfile). Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-640-5.
- The World's Great Stealth and Reconnaissance Aircraft. New York: Smithmark, 1991. ISBN 0-8317-9558-1.
|Wikimedia Commons တွင် B-2 Spirit နှင့် ပတ်သက်သော မီဒီယာ ရှိသည်။|
- B-2 Spirit fact sheet and gallery on U.S. Air Force site
- B-2 Spirit page on Northrop Grumman site Archived 3 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- B-2 Spirit Stealth bomber on airforce-technology.com
- B-2 Stealth Bomber article on How It Works Daily
- B-2 Spirit page at GlobalSecurity.org