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This template is used to create footnotes in Wikipedia, as an alternative and complement to the <ref> tag. Because of a technical limitation, some of the standard Wikipedia markup elements that are often used in the article prose do not work within a set of <ref>...</ref> tags, including but not limited to the pipe trick, template substitution and another "nested" set of <ref>...</ref> tags. For example, the following does not work as expected:

  1. <ref>[[Help:Footnotes|]]</ref> Generates: [[Help:Footnotes|]] instead of a wikilink.
  2. <ref>{{SUBST:TODAY}}</ref> Generates: {{SUBST:TODAY}} instead of the date that the edit was made.
  3. <ref>Explanatory footnote<ref>Citation</ref></ref> Generates: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag

Replacing the outermost <ref>...</ref> set with {{Refn}} allows for the use of the markup elements listed above.


{{refn|group=groupname|name=name|Contents of the footnote}}

  • groupname: Groupname per WP:REFGROUP; if not specified, then the main and nested references will be rendered into the same reference list
  • name: Reference name per WP:REFNAME

Template:Refname rules


Footnotes with citations[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Markup Renders as
An example.{{refn|group=note|name=first|A note.<ref>An included reference.</ref>}}
Another example.{{refn|group=note|Another note.<ref>Another included reference.</ref>}}
A third example.{{refn|group=note|The third note.<ref>The reference in the third note.</ref>}}
Repeating the first example.{{refn|group=note|name=first}}


An example.[note ၁]

Another example.[note ၂] A third example.[note ၃] Repeating the first example.[note ၁]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ A note.[၁]
  2. Another note.[၂]
  3. The third note.[၃]
  1. An included reference.
  2. Another included reference.
  3. The reference in the third note.


The first example shows that substitution does not work in a regular <ref>...</ref> tag (the accessdate does not appear correctly). The second example shows that the accessdate is substituted correctly within {{refn}}.

Markup Renders as
<ref>{{cite web |accessdate={{Subst:TODAY}} |title=Languages |work=Apache HTTP Server |agency=Ohloh |publisher= Black Duck Software |url=https://www.ohloh.net/p/apache/analyses/latest/languages_summary}}</ref>
  1. LanguagesApache HTTP Server။ Black Duck Software။ {{Subst:TODAY}} တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။

{{refn|{{cite web |accessdate={{Subst:TODAY}} |title=Languages |work=Apache HTTP Server |agency=Ohloh |publisher= Black Duck Software |url=https://www.ohloh.net/p/apache/analyses/latest/languages_summary}}}}
  1. LanguagesApache HTTP Server။ Black Duck Software။ 4 April 2014 တွင် ပြန်စစ်ပြီး။


If the reference or note content is missing, then "Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content." will be displayed.

List defined references[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Currently, this template may not be used more than once within list-defined references. Doing so will result in Cite errors; see bug 20707http://bugzilla.wikimedia.org/show_bug.cgi?id=20707.

See also[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]

Help:Cite errors/Cite error group refs without references

Template:Wikipedia referencing