ဗော့စတော့ ၁

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​

Template:Use mdy dates Template:Infobox Space mission

ဗော့စတော့ ၁ (Template:Lang-ru, East 1 or Orient 1) သည် ဗော့စတော့စီမံကိန်း၏ပထမဆုံးအာကာသပျံသန်းမှုဖြစ်ပြီး လူ့သမိုင်းတစ်လျှောက်တွင် ပထမဆုံးလူလိုက်ပါသည့် အာကာသယာဉ်ဖြစ်သည်။ ၁၉၆၁၊ ဧပြီ ၁၂ တွင် လွှတ်တင်ခဲ့သည်။ ပျံသန်းမှုတွင် ဆိုဗီယက်အာကာသယာဉ်မှူး ယူရီဂါဂါရင် အာကာသသို့ လိုက်ပါသွားသည်။ ပျံသန်းမှုသည် အာကာသသို့လူသား ပထမဆုံးရောက်ရှိမှုဖြစ်ပြီး လူလိုက်ပါသောယာဉ်ဖြင့် ပထမဆုံးကမ္ဘာပတ်ခြင်းလည်းဖြစ်သည်။ ဗော့စတော့ ၁ကို ဆိုဗီယက်အာကာသစီမံကိန်းကလွှတ်တင်ခဲ့ခြင်းဖြစ်ပြီး ဒုဗိုလ်ချုပ်ကြီးကီရင်ကီရင်မော့ဗ်နှင့်အခြားသူများ၏ ကြီးကြပ်မှုအောက်တွင် ဆာဂေးကိုရိုလက်ဗ်ဦးဆောင်သည့် ဆိုဗီယက်သိပ္ပံပညာရှင်များက ဒီဇိုင်းထုတ်ခဲ့ခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။ [၁]

အာကာသယာဉ်သည် ကမ္ဘာကိုတစ်ကြိမ်တည်းသာပတ်ခဲ့သည်။ (to this date the shortest orbital manned spaceflight). တရားဝင်မှတ်တမ်းများအရ ယာဉ်စတင်ပစ်လွှတ်ချိန်မှပြန်လည်ဆင်းသက်ချိန်အထိ စုစုပေါင်း ၁၀၈ မိနစ်ကြာခဲ့သည်။ ဂါဂါရင်သည် ကြိုတင်စီစဉ်ထားသည့်အတိုင်း အမြင့် ၇ ကီလိုမီတာ(၂၃,၀၀၀ ပေ)ခန့်တွင် လေထီးဖြင့်ခုန်ထွက်ပြီး အာကာသယာဉ်မှသီးခြားဆင်းသက်ခဲ့သည်။ Due to the secrecy surrounding the Soviet space program at the time, many details of the spaceflight only came to light years later, and several details in the original press releases turned out to be false.

နောက်ခံ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]


ကမ္ဘာ့ပထမဆုံးဂြိုဟ်တုဖြစ်သည့် စပွတ်နစ် ၁ အား ဆိုဗီယက်ပြည်ထောင်စုမှ ၁၉၅၇ တွင်လွှတ်တင်ခဲ့ချိန်မှစတင်ပြီး ဆိုဗီယက်ပြည်ထောင်စုနှင့်အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထောင်စုတို့ကြားတွင် အာကာသပြိုင်ပွဲစတင်ခဲ့သည်။ နှစ်နိုင်ငံလံုးသည် အာကာသပျံသန်းခြင်းနည်းပညာလျင်မြန်စွာဖွံ့ဖြိုးလိုကြပြီး ပထမဆုံးလူလိုက်ပါသည့်အာကာသယာဉ်ကို အောင်မြင်စွာလွှတ်တင်လိုကြသည်။ ဤအတွက်လုပ်ဆောင်နေသော ဆိုဗီယက်စီမံကိန်းမှာ ဗော့စတော့စီမံကိန်းဖြစ်သည်။ လူလိုက်ပါသည့် အာကာသယာဉ်မလွှတ်တင်မီတွင် ဆိုဗီယက်တို့သည် ဗော့စတော့ဒုံးပျံများနှင့်ဗော့စတော့အာကာသယာဉ်နည်းပညာဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေးနှင့်စမ်းသပ်ရေးအတွက် ၁၉၆၀၊ မေလနှင့် ၁၉၆၁၊ မတ်လကြားကာလတွင် လူမဲ့ခရီးစဉ်များစွာကိုလွှတ်တင်ခဲ့ကြသည်။ ဤခရီးစဉ်များတွင် အမျိုးမျိုးသောအောင်မြင်မှုများရရှိခဲ့ကြသည်။ နောက်ဆုံးလွှတ်တင်ခဲ့သည့် လူမဲ့ခရီးစဉ်Korabl-Sputnik 4 နှင့် Korabl-Sputnik 5တို့မှာ အပြည့်အဝအောင်မြင်မှုရရှိခဲ့ကြပြီး လူလိုက်ပါနိုင်ဖို့လမ်းဖွင့်ပေးနိုင်ခဲ့သည်။

ယာဉ်အဖွဲ့သားများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

See also Selection and training of the Vostok programme

အသက် ၂၇ နှစ်အရွယ်ရှိ ယူရင်ဂါဂါရင်သည် ဗော့စတော့ ၁ ၏တစ်ဦးတည်းသောယာဉ်အဖွဲ့သားဖြစ်သည်။ ဗော့စတော့အာကာသယာဉ်များသည် ယာဉ်မှူးတစ်ဦးသာတင်ဆောင်နိုင်ရန်ပုံစံထုတ်ထားသည်။ ပင်မအရံနှင့်ဒုတိယအရံအာကာသသူရဲကောင်းများမှာ Gherman Titovနှင့်Grigori Nelyubovတို့ဖြစ်သည်။ စီစဉ်မှုများကို ခရီးစဉ်မတိုင်မီ လေးရက်အလို ဧပြီ ၈ တွင် တရားဝင်ပြုလုပ်ခဲ့သည်။ လျှောက်လွှာရှင်အာကာသူရဲကောင်းများအကြားတွင် ဂါဂါရင်မှာ လပေါင်းများစွာကတည်းက ရေပန်းအစားဆုံးဖြစ်သည်။ Template:RTemplate:Rp

ခရီးစဉ်တွင်မည်သူလိုက်ပါပျံသန်းမည် နောက်ဆုံးဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်မှာ နီကိုလိုင်ကမန်နင်( Nikolai Kamanin)ပေါ်လုံးဝမူတည်နေသည်။ ဧပြီ ၅ ရက်နေ့ဒိုင်ယာရီတွင် ကမန်နီက သူသည် ဂါဂါရင်နှင့်တီတော့ဗ် မည်သူ့ကိုရွေးရမည်ကိုမဆုံဖြတ်နိုင်သေးကြောင်းရေးသားထားသည်။ [၂] He wrote: "The only thing that keeps me from picking [Titov] is the need to have the stronger person for the one day flight."[၃] Kamanin was referring to the second mission, Vostok 2, which would last a full day, compared to the relatively short single-orbit mission of Vostok 1. ဂါဂါရင်နှင့်တီတော့ဗ်တို့အား ဧပြီ ၉ ရက်နေ့အစည်းအဝေးတွင် ဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်ကိုသိရှိစေခဲ့ရာ ဂါဂါရင်မှာများစွာဝမ်းမြောက်ခဲ့ပြီး တီတော့ဗ်မှာစိတ်ပျက်သွားခဲ့သည်။ [၄] On April 10, this meeting was reenacted in front of television cameras, so there would be official footage of the event. This included an acceptance speech by Gagarin.[၅] As an indication of the level of secrecy involved, one of the other cosmonaut candidates, Alexey Leonov, later recalled that he didn't know who was chosen for the mission until after the spaceflight had begun.[၆]

ဆေးစစ်ခြင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ဂါဂါရင်သည် ပျံသန်းမှုမတိုင်မီ ဆရာဝန်အဖွဲ့နှင့်ဆေးစစ်ခြင်းခံယူရသည်။ One doctor gave her recollection of the events in an interview with RT in April 2011: "Gagarin looked more pale than usual. He was unsociable and quiet, which was not like him at all. He would answer by nodding or a short 'yes' to all questions. Sometimes he would start humming some tunes. This was a different Gagarin. We geared him up, and hugged. And I said, "Yuri, everything will be fine." And he nodded back."[၇]

ပြင်ဆင်မှုများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

နောက်ပိုင်းဗော့စတော့ခရီးစဉ်များနှင့်မတူသည်မှာ အာကာသယာဉ်မှအချက်ပြမှုကိုဖမ်းယူမည့်လမ်းကြောင်းရှာသင်္ဘောမရှိခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။ ယင်းအစား အာကာသယာဉ်ကို ဆက်သွယ်ရန်အတွက် ဆိုဗီယက်ပြည်ထောင်စုတစ်ဝှမ်းလုံးတွင်တည်ရှိသော အမိန့်ပေးနေရာများဟုခေါ်သော မြေပြင်အခြေစိုက်စခန်းများကွန်ရက်အပေါ်အားထားခဲ့ရသည်။ [၈]

Because of weight constraints, there was no backup retrorocket engine. The spacecraft carried 10 days of provisions to allow for survival and natural decay of the orbit in the event the retrorockets failed.

အလိုအလျောက်ထိန်းချုပ်စနစ်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ခရီးစဉ်တစ်ခုလုံးကို အလိုအလျောက်ထိန်းချုပ်စနစ်ဖြင့် သို့မဟုတ်မြေပြင်စခန်းမှထိန်းချုပ်မည်ဖြစ်သည်။ This was because medical staff and spacecraft engineers were unsure how a human might react to weightlessness, and therefore it was decided to lock the pilot's manual controls. In an unusual move, a code to unlock the controls was placed in an onboard envelope, for Gagarin's use in case of emergency.Template:RTemplate:Rp But prior to the flight, Kamanin told Gagarin the code anyway.[၉]

April 11, 1961[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ဂါဂါရင်အား ၁၉၆၁၊ ဧပြီ ၁၁ တွင် တိုင်းတာခဲ့သည့် အီးစီဂျီမှတ်တမ်းအား မော်စကိုမြို့ရှိ အာကာသအောက်မေ့ဖွယ်ပြတိုက်တွင်ပြသထားသည်။

၁၉၆၁၊ ဧပြီ ၁၁ မနက်၌ ဘီကိုနာအာကာသလွှတ်တင်ရေးစခန်းတွင် ဗော့စတော့-ကေ ဒုံးပျံ သည် ဗော့စတော့ ၃ ကေအေ အာကာသယာဉ်တွဲလျက်သားဖြင့် ပစ်စင်ဆီသို့ မိုင်ပေါင်းများစွာအဝေးမှ ရေပြင်ညီအနေအထားဖြင့်သယ်လာကြသည်။ ပစ်စင်သို့ရောက်ရှိချိန်တွင် ဆာဂေးကိုရိုလက်ဗ်ကဒုံးပျံနှင့်အာကာသယာဉ်ကို စစ်ဆေးသည်။ ထူးခြားမှုမတွေ့ရသဖြင့် ဒုံးပျံအားထောင်လိုက်သည်။ [၁၀] At 10 am (Moscow Time), Gagarin and Titov were given a final review of the flight plan.[၁၀] They were informed that launch was scheduled to occur at 9:07 am Moscow Time. This time was chosen so that when the spacecraft started to fly over Africa, which was when the retrorockets would need to fire for reentry, the solar illumination would be ideal for the orientation system's sensors.[၁၁]

At 6 pm, once various physiological readings had been taken, the doctors instructed the cosmonauts not to discuss the upcoming missions. That evening Gagarin and Titov relaxed by listening to music, playing pool, and chatting about their childhoods.[၆] At 9:50 pm, both men were offered sleeping pills, to ensure a good night's sleep, but they both declined.[၁၂] Physicians had attached sensors to the cosmonauts, to monitor their condition throughout the night, and they believed that both had slept well.[၁၃] Gagarin's biographers Doran and Bizony say that neither Gagarin nor Titov slept that night.[၁၄] Korolev didn't sleep that night, due to anxiety caused by the imminent spaceflight.[၁၁]

ခရီးစဉ်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

File:Vostok1 big.gif
ဗော့စတော့ ၁ အားပစ်လွှတ်စဉ်

မော်စကိုစံတော်ချိန် နံနက် ၅:၃၀ တွင် ဂါဂါရင်နှင့်အရံလူ တီတော့ဗ်တို့အားနှိုးကြသည်။ [၁၅] They were given breakfast, assisted into their spacesuits, and then were transported to the launch pad.[၁၆] ဂါဂါရင်သည် ဗော့စတော့ ၁ အာကာသယာဉ်ထဲသို့ဝင်ရောက်ပြီးနောက် ဒေသစံတော်ချိန် ၇:၁၀(နိုင်ငံတကာစံတော်ချိန် ၀၄:၁၀)တွင် ရေဒီယိုဆက်သွယ်မှုစနစ်စတင်သည်။ [၁၆] ဂါဂါရင် ဗော့စတော့ ၁ အာကာသယာဉ်ထဲသို့ထပ်မံဝင်ရောက်ပြီးနောက် အာကာသယာဉ်မောင်းခန်းကင်မရာနှင့်ဆက်ထားသော ထိန်းချုပ်ခန်းရှိ ရုပ်မြင်သံကြားမြင်ကွင်းတွင် ဂါဂါရင်၏ရုပ်ပုံပေါ်လာသည်။ နောက်ထပ် ၂ နာရီကြာသည့်တိုင် လွှတ်တင်ခြင်းမပြုသေးပေ။ ထိုအတောအတွင်း ဂါဂါရင်သည် ယာဉ်ဆက်သွယ်ရေးအရာရှိ၊ ဒီဇိုင်းအင်ဂျင်နီယာချုပ် ဆာဂေကိုရိုလက်ဗ်၊ နီကိုလိုင်ကမန်နင်၊ အခြားသူအနည်းငယ်တို့နှင့်စကားလက်ဆုံကျနေသည်။ [၁၆] စမ်းသပ်စစ်ဆေးမှုတွဲပြီးဆုံးပြီးနောက် ဂါဂါရင် ယာဉ်ထဲဝင်ရောက်ပြီး မိနစ် ၄၀ အကြာတွင် ဂယ်ပေါက်ကိုပိတ်လိုက်သည်။ အဆို့မလုံကြောင်းတွေ့ရသဖြင့် စက်ပိုင်းပညာရှင်များသည် ဝက်အူတိုင်များဖြုတ်ချပြီး ဂယ်ပေါက်ကိုထပ်မံဆို့ရသည်။.[၁၇]

ထိုအတောအတွင်း ဂါဂါရင်က ရေဒီယိုမှသီချင်းဖွင့်ပေးရန်တောင်းဆိုသည်။ [၁၈] Sergei Korolev was very nervous in the lead up to the launch; he experienced chest pains, and took a pill to calm his heart.[၁၉] Gagarin, on the other hand, was described as calm; about half an hour before launch his pulse was recorded at 64 beats per minute.[၂၀]

ပစ်လွှတ်ခြင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  • 06:07 UT Launch occurs from the Baikonur Cosmodrome Site No.1. Korolev radioed, "Preliminary stage..... intermediate..... main..... LIFT OFF! We wish you a good flight. Everything is all right." Gagarin replied, "Поехали! (Here we go!)."[၂၁]
  • 06:09 UT Two minutes into the flight and the four strap-on booster sections of the Vostok rocket have used up the last of their propellant; they shut down and drop away from the core vehicle. (T+ 119 s)
  • 06:10 UT The payload shroud covering Vostok 1 is released. This uncovers the window at Gagarin's feet with the optical orientation device Vzor (lit. "look" or "glance"). (T+ 156 s)
  • 06:12 UT Five minutes into the flight and the Vostok rocket core stage has used up its propellant, shuts down and falls away from the Vostok spacecraft and final rocket stage. The final rocket stage ignites to continue the journey to orbit. (T+ 300 s)
  • 06:13 UT The rocket is still firing, pushing Vostok 1 toward orbit. Gagarin reports, "...the flight is continuing well. I can see the Earth. The visibility is good.... I almost see everything. There's a certain amount of space under cumulus cloud cover. I continue the flight, everything is good."
File:Vostok1.jpg
ဗော့စတော့ ၁ ယာဉ်တွင် ဂါဂါရင်အားတွေ့ရပုံ
  • 06:14 UT The rocket continues to fire, starting to pass over central Russia. Gagarin reports, "Everything is working very well. All systems are working. Let's keep going!"
  • 06:15 UT Three minutes into the burn of the final rocket stage and Gagarin reports, "Zarya-1, Zarya-1, I can't hear you very well. I feel fine. I'm in good spirits. I'm continuing the flight..." Vostok 1 is moving further downrange from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. He is reporting back to Zarya-1 (the Baikonur ground station) and must be starting to move out of radio range of that station.

Time in orbit[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Ground controllers did not know if a stable orbit had been achieved until 25 minutes after launch.

  • 06:17 UT The Vostok rocket final stage shuts down, ten seconds later the spacecraft separates and Vostok 1 reaches orbit. (T+ 676 s) Gagarin reports, "The craft is operating normally. I can see Earth in the view port of the Vzor. Everything is proceeding as planned". Vostok 1 passes over Soviet Union and moves on over Siberia.
ဗော့စတော့ ၁ ၏အထိန်းခုံအစိတ်အပိုင်း
  • 06:21 UT တွင် ဗော့စတော့ ၁ သည် ကမ်ချက်ကားကျွန်းဆွယ်(Kamchatka peninsula)ပေါ်ဖြတ်ကျော်သွားပြီး and out over the North Pacific Ocean. Gagarin radios, "...the lights are on on the descent mode monitor. I'm feeling fine, and I'm in good spirits. Cockpit parameters: pressure 1; humidity 65; temperature 20; pressure in the compartment 1; first automatic 155; second automatic 155; pressure in the retro-rocket system 320 atmospheres...."
  • 06:25 UT As Vostok 1 begins its diagonal crossing of the Pacific Ocean from Kamchatka peninsula to the southern tip of South America, Gagarin asks, "What can you tell me about the flight? What can you tell me?". He is requesting information about his orbital parameters. The ground station at Khabarovsk reports back, "There are no instructions from No. 20 (Sergey Korolyov), and the flight is proceeding normally" They are telling Gagarin that they don't have his orbital parameters yet because the spacecraft has been in orbit for only 6 minutes, but the spacecraft systems are performing well.
  • 06:31 UT Gagarin transmits to the Khabarovsk ground station, "I feel splendid, very well, very well, very well. Give me some results on the flight!". Vostok 1 is nearing the VHF radio horizon for Khabarovsk and they respond, "Repeat. I can't hear you very well". Gagarin transmits again, "I feel very good. Give me your data on the flight!" Vostok 1 passes out of VHF range of the Khabarovsk ground station and contact is lost.
  • 06:37 UT Vostok 1 continues on its journey as the Sun sets over the North Pacific. Gagarin crosses into night, northwest of the Hawaiian Islands. Out of VHF range with ground stations, communications must now take place via HF radio.
  • 06:46 UT Khabarovsk ground station sends the message "KK" via telegraph (on HF radio to Vostok 1). This message means, "Report the monitoring of commands." They were asking Gagarin to report when the spacecraft automated descent system had received its instructions from the ground control. Gagarin reported back at 06:48 UT.
  • 06:48 UT Vostok 1 crosses the equator at about 170° West, traveling in a south east direction and begins crossing the South Pacific. Gagarin transmits over HF radio, "I am transmitting the regular report message: 9 hours 48 minutes (Moscow Time), the flight is proceeding successfully. Spusk-1 is operating normally. The mobile index of the descent mode monitor is moving. Pressure in the cockpit is 1; humidity 65; temperature 20; pressure in the compartment 1.2 ... Manual 150; First automatic 155; second automatic 155; retro rocket system tanks 320 atmospheres. I feel fine...."
  • 06:49 UT Gagarin reports he is on the night side of the Earth.
  • 06:51 UT Gagarin reports the sun-seeking attitude control system has been switched on. The sun-seeking attitude control system is used to orient Vostok 1 for retrofire. The automated orientation system consisted of two redundant systems: an automatic/solar orientation system and a manual/visual orientation system. Either system could operate the two redundant cold nitrogen gas thruster systems, each with includeonly>၁၀ kg (includeonly>၂၂ lb) of gas.
  • 06:53 UT The Khabarovsk ground station sends Gagarin the following message via HF radio, "By order of No.33 (General Nikolai Kamanin) the transmitters have been switched on, and we are transmitting this: the flight is proceeding as planned and the orbit is as calculated." They tell Gagarin that Vostok 1 is in a stable orbit. He acknowledges the message.
  • 06:57 UT Vostok 1 is over the South Pacific between New Zealand and Chile when Gagarin sends this message, "...I'm continuing the flight, and I'm over America. I transmitted the telegraph signal "ON".
  • 07:00 UT Vostok 1 crosses the Strait of Magellan at the tip of South America. News of the Vostok 1 mission is broadcast on Radio Moscow.[၂၂]
Path of Gagarin's complete orbit; the landing point is west of the takeoff point because of the eastward rotation of the Earth.
  • 07:04 UT Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, similar to the one sent at 06:48. The message is not received by ground stations.
  • 07:09 UT Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, the message is not received by ground stations.
  • 07:10 UT Passing over the South Atlantic, the Sun rises and Vostok 1 is in daylight again. Vostok 1 is 15 minutes from retrofire.
  • 07:13 UT Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, similar to the one sent at 06:48. Moscow picks up this partial message from Gagarin, "I read you well. The flight is going...."
  • 07:18 UT Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, the message is not received by ground stations.
  • 07:23 UT Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, the message is not received by ground stations.

The automatic system brought Vostok 1 into alignment for retrofire about 1-hour into the flight.

ပြန်ဝင်လာခြင်းနှင့်ဆင်းသက်ခြင်း[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

At 07:25 UT, the spacecraft's automatic systems brought it into the required attitude (orientation) for the reentry engine firing, and shortly afterwards, the engine firing occurred, also known as retrofire. This took place over the west coast of Africa, near Angola, about Template:Convert/km from the desired landing point. The liquid-fueled retrorockets fired for about 42 seconds.

Ten seconds after retrofire, commands were sent to separate the Vostok service module from the reentry module (sharik), but the Vostok equipment module unexpectedly remained attached to the reentry module by a bundle of wires. At around 07:35 UT, the two halves of the spacecraft begin reentry and went through strong gyrations as Vostok 1 neared Egypt. At this point the wires broke, the two modules separated, and the descent module settled into the proper reentry attitude. Gagarin telegraphed "Everything is OK" despite continuing gyrations; he later reported that he did not want to "make noise" as he had (correctly) reasoned that the gyrations did not endanger the mission (and were apparently caused by the spherical shape of the reentry module).

As Gagarin continued his descent, he experienced about 8 g (Gagarin's own report states "over 10 g") during reentry but remained conscious.

ဗော့စတော့ ၁ ထိပ်ဖူးအား RKK Energiya museumတွင်ပြသထားပုံ

In case of reentry engine malfunction, the spacecraft was designed to descend within 10 days due to orbital decay. However, the actual orbit differed from the planned and would not have allowed descent until 20 days postlaunch while the life support system was designed to function for only 10 days.[၂၃]

At 07:55 UT, when Vostok 1 was still 7 km from the ground, the hatch of the spacecraft was released, and two seconds later Gagarin was ejected. At Template:Convert/km altitude, the main parachute was deployed from the Vostok spacecraft. Two schoolgirls witnessed the Vostok landing and described the scene: "It was a huge ball, about two or three metres high. It fell, then it bounced and then it fell again. There was a huge hole where it hit the first time."

ဂါဂါရင်၏လေထီးချက်ခြင်းပွင့်သွားပြီးနောက် ၁၀ မိနစ်အကြာ နိုင်ငံတကာစံတော်ချိန် 08:05 တွင် ဂါဂါရင်မြေပြင်ဆင်းသက်နိုင်ခဲ့သည်။ ဂါဂါရင်ရောအာကာသယာဉ်ပါ Template:Convert/km south west of Engels, in the Saratov region at 51°16′14″N 45°59′50″E / 51.270682°N 45.99727°E / 51.270682; 45.99727လေထီးဖြင့်ဆင်းသက်လာကြခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။ . It was 280 km to the west of the planned landing site (near Baikonur).[၂၃]

A farmer and her daughter observed the strange scene of a figure in a bright orange suit with a large white helmet landing near them by parachute. Gagarin later recalled, "When they saw me in my space suit and the parachute dragging alongside as I walked, they started to back away in fear. I told them, don't be afraid, I am a Soviet citizen like you, who has descended from space and I must find a telephone to call Moscow!"

Reactions and legacy[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Soviet reaction[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The Soviet press later reported that minutes before boarding the spacecraft Gagarin made a speech: "Dear friends, you who are close to me, and you whom I do not know, fellow Russians, and people of all countries and all continents: in a few minutes a powerful space vehicle will carry me into the distant realm of space. What can I tell you in these last minutes before the launch? My whole life appears to me as one beautiful moment. All that I previously lived through and did, was lived through and done for the sake of this moment." He actually recorded the speech—"a stream of banalities prepared by anonymous speechwriters", according to historian Asif Siddiqi—in Moscow.[၂၄]Template:Rp

American reaction[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Officially, the U.S. congratulated the Soviet Union on its accomplishments.[၂၅]

Writing for the New York Times shortly after the flight, however, journalist Arthur Krock described mixed feelings in the United States due to fears of the spaceflight's potential military implications for the Cold War,[၂၆] and the Detroit Free Press wrote that "the people of Washington, London, Paris and all points between might have been dancing in the streets" if it were not for "doubts and suspicions" about Soviet intentions.[၂၇] Other US writers reported worries that the spaceflight had won a propaganda victory on behalf of communism.[၂၈][၂၉] President John F. Kennedy was quoted as saying that it would be "some time" before the US could match the Soviet launch vehicle technology, and that "the news will be worse before it's better."[၂၈] Kennedy also sent congratulations to the Soviet Union for their "outstanding technical achievement."[၂၈] Opinion pages of many US newspapers urged renewed efforts to overtake the Soviet scientific accomplishments.[၂၇]

Adlai Stevenson, then the US ambassador to the United Nations, was quoted as saying, "Now that the Soviet scientists have put a man into space and brought him back alive, I hope they will also help to bring the United Nations back alive,"[၂၇] and on a more serious note urged international agreements covering the use of space[၂၇] (which did not occur until the Outer Space Treaty of 1967).

Other world reactions[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India praised the Soviets for "a great victory of man over the forces of nature"[၂၈] and urged that it be "considered as a victory for peace."[၂၇] The Economist voiced worries that orbital platforms might be used for surprise nuclear attacks.[၂၇] The Svenska Dagbladet in Sweden chided "free countries" for "splitting up and frittering away" their resources,[၂၇] while West Germany's Die Welt argued that America had the resources to have sent a man into space first but was beaten by Soviet purposefulness.[၂၇] Japan's Yomiuri Shimbun urged "that both the United States and the Soviet Union should use their new knowledge and techniques for the good of mankind,"[၂၇] and Egypt's Akhbar El Yom likewise expressed hopes that the cold war would "turn into a peaceful race in infinite space" and turn away from armed conflicts such as the Laotian Civil War.[၂၇]

World record[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

The FAI rules in 1961 required that a pilot must land with the spacecraft to be considered an official spaceflight for the FAI record books.Template:RTemplate:Rp Although some contemporary Soviet sources stated that Gagarin had parachuted separately to the ground,[၃၀] the Soviet Union officially insisted that he had landed with the Vostok; the government forced the cosmonaut to lie in press conferences, and the FAI certified the flight. The Soviet Union did not admit until 1971 that Gagarin had ejected and landed separately from the Vostok descent module.Template:RTemplate:Rp

When Soviet officials filled out the FAI papers to register the flight of Vostok 1, they stated that the launch site was Baykonur at 47°22′00″N 65°29′00″E / 47.3666667°N 65.4833333°E / 47.3666667; 65.4833333. In reality, the launch site was near Tyuratam at 45°55′12.72″N 63°20′32.32″E / 45.9202°N 63.3423111°E / 45.9202; 63.3423111, Template:Convert/km to the south west of "Baykonur". They did this to try to keep the location of the Space Center a secret.Template:RTemplate:Rp In 1995, Russian and Kazakh officials renamed Tyuratam Baikonur.

Legacy[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Four decades after the flight, historian Asif Siddiqi wrote that Vostok 1

will undoubtedly remain one of the major milestones in not only the history of space exploration, but also the history of the human race itself. The fact that this accomplishment was successfully carried out by the Soviet Union, a country completely devastated by war just sixteen years prior, makes the achievement even more impressive. Unlike the United States, the USSR had to begin from a position of tremendous disadvantage. Its industrial infrastructure had been ruined, and its technological capabilities were outdated at best. A good portion of its land had been devastated by war, and it had lost about 25 million citizens ... but it was the totalitarian state that overwhelmingly took the lead [in the space race].Template:RTemplate:Rp
Commemorative monument, Vostok-1 landing site near Engels, Russia.

The landing site is now a monument park. The central feature in the park is a 25 meter tall monument that consists of a silver metallic rocketship rising on a curved metallic column of flame, from a wedge shaped, white stone base. In front of this is a 3 meter tall, white stone statue of Yuri Gagarin, wearing a spacesuit, with one arm raised in greeting and the other holding a space helmet.[၃၁][၃၂][၃၃]

The Vostok 1 re-entry capsule is now on display at the RKK Energiya museum in Korolyov, near Moscow.

In 2011, documentary film maker Christopher Riley partnered with European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli to record a new film of what Gagarin would have seen of the Earth from his spaceship, by matching historical audio recordings to video from the International Space Station following the ground path taken by Vostok 1. The resulting film, First Orbit, was released online to celebrate the 50th anniversary of human spaceflight.[၃၄]

See also[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Notes[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  1. Bond, Peter (April 7, 2003), "Obituary: Lt-Gen Kerim Kerimov", The Independent (London), archived from the original on April 13, 2009, http://web.archive.org/web/20090413191059/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20030407/ai_n12692130/, retrieved 2012-01-13 
  2. Burgess and Hall, p.140
  3. Quoted in Burgess and Hall, p.140-141
  4. Burgess and Hall, p.141. The press said that Titov was so happy for Gagarin that he almost kissed him, but Titov denies this – Burgess and Hall, p.145.
  5. Siddiqi, p.272, also Burgess and Hall, p.142
  6. ၆.၀ ၆.၁ Burgess and Hall, p.151
  7. http://rt.com/news/gagarin-space-anniversary-history/
  8. Hall and Shayler, p.148-149
  9. Burgess and Hall, p.156
  10. ၁၀.၀ ၁၀.၁ Burgess and Hall, p.150
  11. ၁၁.၀ ၁၁.၁ Siddiqi, p.273
  12. Burgess and Hall, p.151. During a post-flight press conference on April 15, Alexander Nesmeyanov claimed that Gagarin took a sleeping pill. Also, Siddiqi, p.273, claims that they were both asleep at 9:30 pm when Korolev came to visit them, but Burgess and Hall, p.151, says Korolev spoke with them at this time.
  13. Siddiqi, p.273; In a post-flight press conference, Gagarin also stated that he slept well.
  14. Burgess and Hall, p.153.
  15. Burgess and Hall, p.153
  16. ၁၆.၀ ၁၆.၁ ၁၆.၂ Siddiqi, p.274
  17. Siddiqi, p.275
  18. Siddiqi, p.276; neither Siddiqi, nor Hall and Shayler claim that music was actually played after this request.
  19. Siddiqi describes is as a "tranquilizer pill", while Hall and Shayler describe it as a "cardiac pill".
  20. Siddiqi, p.276
  21. Hall and Shayler, p.150
  22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/12/newsid_2477000/2477715.stm
  23. ၂၃.၀ ၂၃.၁ Руденко М. И.. "Тогда Юра вернулся на землю не из космоса, а с того света!..", интернет-газета "Русская Берёза", May–June – 2008. Retrieved on 2011-03-31. 
  24. Siddiqi, Asif A.. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945–1974. NASA. 
  25. Template:Cite episode
  26. Arthur Krock, "In The Nation; Concentration of Science on Outer Space," New York Times p. 28, April 14, 1961. "But because of the distrust that now exists among the great nations, and has plunged them into huge programs of deadly rearmament, an achievement by one which carries a clear and direct potential of military supremacy engenders fear of its use.... And so it has become as impossible for either of the groups divided by the Cold War to welcome unreservedly such feats as Major Gagarin's in the opposite camp."
  27. ၂၇.၀ ၂၇.၁ ၂၇.၂ ၂၇.၃ ၂၇.၄ ၂၇.၅ ၂၇.၆ ၂၇.၇ ၂၇.၈ ၂၇.၉ "Opinion of the Week: At Home and Abroad," New York Times p. E11 (April 16, 1961). Quotes of reactions from many US and international sources.
  28. ၂၈.၀ ၂၈.၁ ၂၈.၂ ၂၈.၃ "Man in Space", New York Times p. E1 (April 16, 1961).
  29. Harry Schwartz, "Moscow: Flight is taken as another sign that communism is the conquering wave," New York Times p. E3 (April 16, 1961).
  30. "The Cruise of the Vostok", Time, April 21, 1961. Retrieved on November 5, 2011. 
  31. Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Monument Park Location – Satellite photo. Retrieved on 2010-12-26
  32. Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Rocket Monument photo. Retrieved on 2010-12-26
  33. Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Yuri Gagarin Statue photo. Retrieved on 2010-12-26
  34. Amos, Jonathan. "Movie recreates Gagarin's spaceflight", BBC News, March 23, 2011. Retrieved on March 27, 2011. 
  35. Tattoo Archive – Vostok

References[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  • Colin Burgess, Rex Hall (June 2, 2010). The first Soviet cosmonaut team: their lives, legacy, and historical impact. Praxis, 356. ISBN 0-387-84823-1. 
  • Rex Hall, David Shayler (May 18, 2001). The rocket men: Vostok & Voskhod, the first Soviet manned spaceflights. Springer, 350. ISBN 1-85233-391-X. 

External links[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Template:Vostok Programme Template:Orbital launches in 1961Template:Link GA