ပလွေမှုတ်ခြင်း

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​

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ပုလွေပေးနေပုံ
69အနေအထားဖြင့် ပုလွေပေးနေပုံ

Fellatio performed in the 69 position Illustration by Édouard-Henri Avril

Fellatio (also known as fellation,[1] and colloquially blow job, BJ, giving head or sucking off[2]) is an act of oral stimulation of the penis by a sexual partner or by oneself (autofellatio). It involves the stimulation of the penis by the use of the mouth, lips, tongue or throat.[2] A person who performs fellatio on someone can be referred to as the giving partner, and the other person as the receiving partner. Fellatio is regarded by many as an erotic act in its own right and a physically intimate act. For many males, it is a turn-on which may be used by the giving partner to initiate foreplay and sexual arousal prior to sexual intercourse.[3] The act may also be performed for the sexual gratification derived by the male receiving partner and can be continued until orgasm and ejaculation of semen.

Fellatio is also sometimes practiced when sexual intercourse can create a physical difficulty for a sex partner. For example, it may be practiced during pregnancy instead of vaginal sex by couples wishing to engage in intimate sexual activity while avoiding the difficulty of vaginal intercourse during later stages of pregnancy.[4] Contents

   1 Etymology
   2 Deep-throating
   3 Cultural significance
       3.1 Ingestion of semen
       3.2 Virginity
       3.3 Pregnancy
   4 STD risks
       4.1 HPV and oral cancer link
   5 Legality
   6 Fellatio and other species
   7 See also
   8 References

Etymology[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ပုလွေပေးနေပုံပန်းချီကား

The English noun fellatio comes from fellātus, which in Latin is the past participle of the verb fellāre, meaning to suck. In fellatio the -us is replaced by the -io; the declension stem ends in -ion-, which gives the suffix the form -ion (cf. French fellation). The -io(n) ending is used in English to create nouns from Latin adjectives and it can indicate a state or action wherein the Latin verb is being, or has been, performed.

Further English words have been created based on the same Latin root. A person who performs fellatio upon another may be termed a fellator. Because of Latin's gender based declension, this word may be restricted by some English speakers to describing a male. The equivalent female term is fellatrix. Deep-throating Main article: Deep-throating

Deep-throating is an act in which a man's entire erect penis is inserted deep into the mouth of a partner, in such a way as to enter the receiving partner's throat.

It is difficult for most people to perform deep-throating, due to the need to suppress the natural gag reflex. Different people have different sensitivities to the reflex, but some people learn to suppress the reflex. Cultural significance Depiction of fellatio on Attic red-figure kylix, c. 510 BC Oral sex depicted in the Kama Sutra

In ancient Greece and modern Japan, fellatio has been referred to as "playing the flute"; the Kama Sutra has a chapter on auparishtaka (or oparishtaka), "mouth congress".[5]

Galienus called fellatio "lesbiari" since women of the island of Lesbos were supposed to have introduced the practice of using one's lips to give sexual pleasure.[6]

The Ancient Indian Kama Sutra, dating from the first century AD, describes oral sex,[7] discussing fellatio in great detail and only briefly mentioning cunnilingus. However, according to the Kama Sutra, fellatio is above all a characteristic of eunuchs (or, according to other translations, of effeminate homosexuals or transwomen similar to the modern Hijra of India), who use their mouths as a substitute for female genitalia.

The author states that it is also practiced by "unchaste women" but mentions widespread traditional concerns about this being a degrading or unclean practice, with known practitioners being evaded as love partners in large parts of the country. He seems to agree with these attitudes to some extent, claiming "a wise man" should not engage in that form of intercourse while acknowledging that it can be appropriate in some unspecified cases.

The religious historian Mircea Eliade speaks of a desire to transcend old age and death and achieve a state of nirvana in the Hindu practice of Tantric yoga. In Tantric yoga the same emphasis is placed on the retention and absorption of vital liquids and Sanskrit texts describe how semen must not be emitted if the yogi is to avoid falling under the law of time and death.[8]

In Islamic literature the only form of sex that is always explicitly prohibited within marriage is sex during menstrual cycles.[9] But the exact attitude towards oral sex is a subject of disagreements between modern scholars of Islam. Authorities considering it "objectionable" do so because of the contact between the supposedly impure fluids emitted during intercourse and the mouth.[10] Others emphasize there is no decisive evidence to forbid it.[11] Moche ceramic depicting fellatio. 300 A.D. Larco Museum Collection

The Moche culture of ancient Peru worshipped daily life including sexual acts. They depicted fellatio in their ceramics.[12]

According to the research of Russian anthropologist S. M. Shirokogoroff, in the Manchu tribe of the Amur river mothers used to put their male babies' penises into mouths as a caress, since it was not considered a sexual act.[13] Ingestion of semen

Nancy Friday's book, Men in Love - Men's Sexual Fantasies: The Triumph of Love over Rage claims that swallowing ejaculate is high on the intimacy scale.[14]

As late as 1976, some doctors were advising women in the eighth and ninth months of pregnancy not to swallow semen lest it induce premature labor,[15] even though it is now known to be safe.

Semen ingestion has also had central importance in some cultures around the world. In Baruya culture, there is a secret ritual in which boys give fellatio to young males and drink their semen, to "re-engender themselves prior to marriage".[16] Among the Sambia people of Papua New Guinea, beginning at age seven all males regularly submit to oral penetration by adolescents in a six-stage initiation process, as the Sambia believe that regular ingestion of an older boy's semen is necessary for a prepubescent youth to achieve sexual maturity and masculinity. By the time he enters mid-puberty he in turn participates in passing his semen on to younger males.[17] [18] Virginity

Some people use oral sex as a means of preserving virginity,[19][20][21][22] especially in the case of adolescent girls who fellate their boyfriends to create and maintain intimacy while preserving their virginity, avoiding pregnancy, or both.[22][23][24] Other reasons given for the practice among adolescent girls are peer-group pressure and as their introduction to sexual activity.[22] Pregnancy See also: Paternal tolerance

Fellatio alone cannot result in pregnancy, as there is no way for ingested sperm from the penis to enter the uterus and fallopian tubes to fertilize an egg. In humans, there is no connection between the gastrointestinal system and the reproductive tract. Sperm is killed and broken down by acid in the stomach and digestive enzymes in the small intestine.

It has been suggested that fellatio may, through "immune modulation",[25] have a beneficial role in preventing dangerous complications during pregnancy, reducing specifically the risk of miscarriage and pre-eclampsia. Specifically, several research groups[26] have reported that pre-eclampsia, a life threatening complication that sometimes arises in pregnancy, is much less frequent in couples who have practiced oral sex, and even more rare in couples where fellatio regularly ended with a woman's swallowing of her partner's semen.

The results were statistically significant and are consistent with the fact that semen contains several agents that have important roles in the prevention of pre-eclampsia, which may arise out of an immunological condition.[25][27][28] According to that view, preeclampsia is caused by a failure of the mother to accept the fetus and placenta, which both contain "foreign" proteins from the father's genes.

Regular exposure to the father's semen helps cause immunological tolerance to their proteins. Other studies also found that, while any exposure to the partner's sperm during sex appears to decrease the chances of various disorders, women in couples who have practiced "sex acts other than intercourse" are less than half as likely to suffer pre-eclampsia.

The studies noted that it would be impossible to assume conclusively the likely protective effect of the "other sex acts" including oral sex, or that the correlation between these sexual practices was due to the presence of collinearity induced by some other protective factor not noted in the studies: for example, greater overall frequency of sex.[25] The standard way to resolve such confounding questions in medical science would be through a randomized trial, but there are unique challenges to research in sexual health.[29] STD risks

Chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, herpes, hepatitis (multiple strains), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), can be transmitted through oral sex.[30]

Any kind of sexual contact with bodily fluids of a person infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, poses a risk of infection. The risk from most of these types of infection, however, is generally considered far lower than that associated with vaginal or anal sex.[31][32]

If the receiving partner has wounds on his genitals, or if the giving partner has wounds or open sores on or in his or her mouth, or bleeding gums, this poses an increased risk of STD transmission. Brushing the teeth, flossing, undergoing dental work, or eating crunchy foods such as potato chips relatively soon before or after giving fellatio can also increase the risk of transmission, because all of these activities can cause small scratches in the lining of the mouth.

These wounds, even when they are microscopic, increase the chances of contracting STDs that can be transmitted orally under these conditions. Such contact can also lead to more mundane infections from common bacteria and viruses found in, around and secreted from the genital regions. Because of this, some medical professionals advise the use of condoms when performing or receiving fellatio with a partner whose STD status is unknown. Flavored condoms may be used for this purpose. HPV and oral cancer link

In 2006, a research study at Malmö University's Faculty of Odontology suggested that performing unprotected oral sex on a person infected with HPV might increase the risk of oral cancer. The study found that 36 percent of the cancer patients had HPV compared to only 1 percent of the healthy control group.[33]

Another recent study suggests a correlation between oral sex and throat cancer. It is believed that this is due to the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV).

The study concludes that people who had one to five oral-sex partners in their lifetime had approximately a doubled risk of throat cancer compared with those who never engaged in this activity and those with more than five oral-sex partners had a 250 percent increased risk.[34] Legality

In the United States, fellatio was once considered immoral and was also illegal.[35]

In Malaysia, fellatio is still illegal, but the law is seldom enforced. Under Section 377A of the Penal Code, the introduction of the penis into the anus or mouth of another person is considered a "carnal intercourse against the order of nature" and is punishable with imprisonment of 20 years maximum and whipping.[36] Fellatio and other species Main article: Animal sexual behavior [icon] This section requires expansion. (July 2010) Female bats perform fellatio to increase copulation time. This species is the only non-primate known to exhibit this behaviour.[37]

The fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, has been observed to engage in fellatio during mating. Pairs spend more time copulating if the female licks the male than if she does not.[37][38] See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fellatio

   Eroto-comatose lucidity
   Fellatio in Islamic law
   Oral sex
       Analingus
       Autofellatio
       Cunnilingus
       Facesitting
       Facial
       Irrumatio
       Teabagging
   Orgasm control
   Pearl necklace

References

   ^ "fellation". Merriam-Webster. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Archived from the original on 2010-09-20.
   ^ a b "Oral Sex". BBC Advice. BBC. Archived from the original on 2010-09-20.
   ^ "What is oral sex?". NHS Choices. NHS. 2009-01-15. Archived from the original on 2010-09-20.
   ^ "Is it safe to swallow semen during pregnancy?". BabyCenter. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ "The age-old question: Spit or swallow?". The Badger Herald. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ "Irrumation". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ "The actual kama sutra or kamasutra: Part II: On Sexual Union: Chapter IX. On Holding the Lingam in the Mouth by Kamashastra". Kamashastra.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ Eliade Mircea. [1954] 1973. Yoga, Immortality and Freedom. trans. Willard R. Trask. (Princeton: Princeton University Press). p. 267-268
   ^ Regarding 'Oral Sex'
   ^ "Articles and Essays". Zawaj.Com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ "Islam's Stance on Oral Sex - IslamonLine.net - Ask The Scholar". IslamonLine.net. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
   ^ Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich Shirokogorov (1924). Social Organization of the Manchus: a study of the Manchu clan organization. Ardent Media. pp. 122, 123.
   Weston La Barre (1947). The Cultural Basis of Emotions and Gestures. Ardent Media. p. 57. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
   ^ Men in Love - Men's Sexual Fantasies: The Triumph of Love over Rage (1982) by Nancy Friday. ISBN 978-0-440-15903-2
   ^ Sandra Margot, Tonianne Robino. The Pregnant Couple's Guide to Sex, Romance, and Intimacy. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-8065-2323-1.
   ^ "New Left Review - Jack Goody: The Labyrinth of Kinship". Retrieved 2007-07-24.
   ^ Herdt, Gilbert (1994). Guardians of the Flutes, Vol. 1. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-32749-3.
   ^ "Intro to Cultural Anthropology: The Sambia". Faculty.mdc.edu. 1999-10-04. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ Carpenter, Laura M. (2001). "The Ambiguity of "Having Sex": The Subjective Experience of Virginity Loss in the United States - Statistical Data Included". United States: The Journal of Sex Research. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
   ^ Bryan Strong, Christine DeVault, Theodore F. Cohen (2010). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationship in a Changing Society. Cengage Learning. 615 pages. ISBN 0-534-62425-1, 9780534624255. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
   ^ Laura M. Carpenter (2005). Virginity lost: an intimate portrait of first sexual experiences. NYU Press. 295 pages. ISBN 0-8147-1652-0, 9780814716526. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
   ^ a b c Sonya S. Brady, PhD and Bonnie L. Halpern-Felsher, PhD (2007). "Adolescents' Reported Consequences of Having Oral Sex Versus Vaginal Sex". Pediatrics 119 (2): 229–236. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1727. PMID 17272611.
   ^ Mark Regnerus (2007). "The Technical Virginity Debate: Is Oral Sex Really Sex?". Forbidden fruit: sex & religion in the lives of American teenagers. Oxford University Press US. 290 pages. ISBN 978-0-19-532094-7.
   ^ Jayson, Sharon (2005-10-19). "'Technical virginity' becomes part of teens' equation". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
   ^ a b c "Sex 'primes woman for sperm'.". BBC News. 2002-02-06. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ Koelman, CA; et al. (2000). "Correlation between oral sex and a low incidence of preeclampsia: A role for soluble HLA in seminal fluid?". Journal of Reproductive Immunology 46 (2): 155–166. doi:10.1016/S0165-0378(99)00062-5. PMID 10706945.
   ^ Taylor RN (1997) "Review: Immunobiology of preeclampsia" American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Volume 37 pp. 79-86
   ^ Chaouat et al., (2005) "Fourth International Workshop on Immunology of Pre-eclampsia, December 2004, Reunion, France" Journal of Reproductive Immunology Volume 67 pp. 103-111
   ^ Schroder Kee, Carey MP, Vanable PA (2003) "Methodological Challenges in Research on Sexual Risk Behavior: I. Item Content, Scaling, and Data Analytical Options". Annals of Behavioral Medicine; Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 76-103.
   ^ University Health Center | Sexual Health | Oral Sex
   ^ By Dan Savage (2008-05-08). "Savage Love - Columns - Savage Love - Dan Savage - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper". Thestranger.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ "Hand Job / Blow Job Question...". AVI. 2010-02-19. Retrieved 2010-03-19.[dead link]
   ^ "Oral Sex Linked To Mouth Cancer Risk". MedIndia. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ "New Scientist: "Oral sex can cause throat cancer" - 09 May 2007". Newscientist.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
   ^ Reynolds, Quentin (1952). Courtroom. Popular Giant. pp. 232–3.
   ^ "Illegal but not abnormal". The Star. March 1, 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
   ^ a b Tan, Min; Gareth Jones, Guangjian Zhu, Jianping Ye, Tiyu Hong, Shanyi Zhou, Shuyi Zhang, Libiao Zhang (October 28, 2009). Hosken, David. ed. "Fellatio by Fruit Bats Prolongs Copulation Time". PLoS ONE 4 (10): e7595. Bibcode 2009PLoSO...4.7595T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007595. PMC 2762080. PMID 19862320. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
   ^ "Fellatio keeps male fruit bats keen - life - 29 October 2009 - New Scientist". www.newscientist.com. Retrieved 2009-10-31.

[hide]

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   t
   e

Outline of human sexuality Physiological events

   Erection
   Insemination
   Orgasm
       Female and Male ejaculation
   Pregnancy
   Sexual arousal

Health and education

   Birth control
   Condom
   Reproductive medicine
       Andrology
       Gynaecology
       Urology
   Safe sex
   Sex education
   Sex therapy
   Sex surrogate
   Sexual dysfunction
       Erectile dysfunction
       Hypersexuality
       Hyposexuality
   Sexually transmitted disease
   Sexual medicine

Identity

   Gender identity
   Sex identity
   Sexual identity
   Sexual orientation

Law

   Age of consent
   Criminal transmission of HIV
   Incest
   Obscenity
   Public indecency
   Sexual assault
   Sexual harassment
   Sexual misconduct
   Sexual violence

History

   Feminist Sex Wars
   History of erotic depictions
   Sexual revolution

Relationships and society

   Anarchism and love/sex
   Family planning
   Marriage
   Paraphilia
   Polyamory
   Promiscuity
   Romance
   Sexual abstinence
   Sexual addiction
   Sexual attraction
   Sexual capital
   Sexual ethics
   Sexual objectification

By country

   India
   China
   Ancient Rome
   the Philippines
   Japan
   South Korea
   United States (teen)

Sexual activities

   Anal sex
   Bareback
   BDSM
   Child sex
       Child sexual abuse
       Child-on-child sexual abuse
   Creampie
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   Group sex
   Masturbation
   Mechanics of sex
   Non-penetrative sex
       Mammary intercourse
       Facial
       Footjob
       Frot
       Heavy petting
       Handjob
       Sumata
   Oral sex
       Anilingus
       Cunnilingus
       Fellatio
       Irrumatio
   Stimulation of nipples
   Orgasm control
   Pompoir
   Quickie
   Sex positions
   Sexual abuse
       Rape
       Sexual violence
   Sexual fantasy
   Sexual intercourse
       Foreplay
   Sexual penetration
   Sexual sublimation
   Virtual sex
       Cybersex
       Dirty talk

Sex industry

   Adult video game
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       Child
       Female
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       Survival sex
   Sex museum
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       doll
   Strip club

Religion and sexuality

   Islam
   Christian demonology
   Mormonism
   Daoism
   Sex magic
   Human sexuality
   Portal:Sexuality
   Sexology
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