ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်

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ဤနေရာသို့သွားရန် - အ​ညွှန်း​, ရှာ​ဖွေ​ရန်​
ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ် (Jimmy Wales)
ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ် (Jimmy Wales)
၂၀၀၈ ဒီဇင်ဘာတွင် ရိုက်ကူး
အမည်​ရင်း ဂျင်မီဒေါ်နာဝေးလ်စ်
မွေး​သက္ကရာဇ် ၇ ဩဂုတ် ၁၉၆၆
အမေရိကန်
နိုင်ငံသား အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထောင်စု
လူမျိုး လူဖြူ
ပညာရေး ဩဘင်တက္ကသိုလ်
အယ်ဘားမားတက္ကသိုလ်
အင်ဒီယားနားတက္ကသိုလ်
အလုပ်အကိုင် ဝီကီယာ၏ ဥက္ကဋ္ဌ၊
ဝီကီမီဒီယာရန်ပုံငွေအဖွဲ့၏
ဘုတ်အဖွဲ့ဝင်နှင့် ဂုဏ်ထူးဆောင်ဥက္ကဋ္ဌ
မွေးရပ်ဇာတိ အယ်ဘားမား၊အမေရိကန်

ဂျင်မီဒေါ်နာ "ဂျင်ဘို" ဝေးလ်စ် (၇ ဩဂုတ် ၁၉၆၆ -[၁]) သည် အမေရိကန် အင်တာနက် လုပ်ငန်းရှင်တစ်ဦးဖြစ်ပြီး ဝီကီပီးဒီးယားအား တွဲဖက်တည်ထောင်ကာ[၂][၃] တွန်းအားပေး ဆောင်ရွက်နေသူဖြစ်သည်။ [၄][၅]

၎င်းသည် ဝီကီမီဒီယာရန်ပုံငွေအဖွဲ့၏ ဘုတ်အဖွဲ့ဝင်ဖြစ်ပြီး ဘုတ်အဖွဲ့မှ ခန့်အပ်သည့် "အဖွဲ့အစည်းထူထောင်သူ" နေရာကို ရရှိထားသည်။ [၆] ၂၀၀၄ ခုနှစ်တွင် ၎င်းသည် အိန်ဂျယ်လာ ဘီးစ်လီ[၇]နှင့်အတူ အခမဲ့ ဝက်ဘ်ဆိုက်ဖြစ်သည့် ဝီကီယာကို ထူထောင်ခဲ့သည်။

လာရီစန်ဂါအပါအဝင် အခြားသူများနှင့်အတူ ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်သည် ၂၀၀၁-ခုနှစ်တွင် လွှင့်တင်ခဲ့သည့် ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား၏ အခြေခံအုတ်မြစ်ကို ကူညီထူထောင်ခဲ့သည်။ ဝီကီပီးဒီးယားသည် အခမဲ့ အင်တာနက် စွယ်စုံကျမ်းဖြစ်ပြီး လွှင့်တင်ပြီး မကြာမှီမှာပင် အရှန်အဟုန်နှင့် ကြီးထွားလာကာ လူသိများလာသည်။[၈][၉] ဝီကီပီးဒီးယားအား လူသိများလာသည့်အလျောက် ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်သည် အစီအစဉ်အား တွန်းအားပေးသူနှင့် ပြောခွင့်ရပုဂ္ဂိုလ်ဖြစ်လာသည်။ [၁၀] လူအများက ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်အား ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား၏ တွဲဖက်ထူထောင်သူဟု ကိုးကားဖော်ပြကြသော်လည်း ၎င်းကမူ မိမိသာလျှင် တစ်ဦးတည်းသော ထူထောင်သူဟု ဆိုသည်။ [၁၁] [၁၂]

အမေရိကန် အယ်ဘားမားပြည်နယ် ဟန့်စ်ဗီးလ် (Huntsville, Alabama) တွင် မွေးဖွားသည့် ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်သည် ပုဂ္ဂလိကကျောင်းငယ်တွင် ပညာသင်ကြားခဲ့သည်။ ဒီ့နောက်တွင် ငွေရေးကြေး အထူးဘာသာဖြင့် တက္ကသိုလ်ဘွဲ့နှင့် မဟာဘွဲ့ကို ရရှိခဲ့သည်။ မဟာတန်းကျောင်းသားဘဝတွင် ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်သည် တက္ကသိုလ် ၂ ခုတွင် စာသင်ကြားပြသခဲ့သည်။ [၁၃][၁၄] ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်သည် အိုင်းရန်းဒ်၏ ဓမ္မဓိဋ္ဌာန်ကျကျ အတွေးအခေါ်အား [၁၅]လေးစားကြည်ညိုသူဖြစ်ကာ မိမိကိုယ်ကို လွတ်လပ်ရေးဝါဒီဟု သမုတ်လေ့ရှိသည်။ [၁၃]

ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်သည် ကမ္ဘာ့အကြီးမားဆုံး စွယ်စုံကျမ်း ဝီကီပီးဒီးယားအား ထူထောင်ခဲ့သည့်အတွက် တိုင်းမ်မဂ္ဂဇင်းက ၎င်းအား ၂၀၀၆ ခုနှစ်၏ ဩဇာလွမ်းမိုးမှု အကြီးမားဆုံး ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်အဖြစ် ရွေးချယ်ဖော်ပြခဲ့သည်။ [၁၆] ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ်သည် လက်တွေ့တွင် ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား၏ ခေါင်းဆောင်ဖြစ်သည်။ [၄][၁၇]

ငယ်စဉ်ဘဝနှင့် ပညာရေး[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ဝေးလ်စ် ကို အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထောင်စုအလာဘားမားပြည်နယ်ဟန့်စ်ဗီးလ်မြို့ တွင် မွေးဖွားခဲ့သည်။ [၁၄] သူ၏ဇနီး ခရစ္စတင်း ရိုဟန် (to Christine Rohan) နှင့် ၁၉၉၇ ခုနှစ် လက်ထပ်စာချုပ် မှတ်တမ်းအရ သူ၏ မွေးရက်မှာ ၁၉၆၆ ခုနှစ်၊ ဩဂုတ်လ (၇)ရက်နေ့ ဖြစ်သည်။ [၁] သို့သော် သူ၏ ယာဉ်မောင်းလိုင်စင် မှတ်ပုံတင်ကဒ် ပေါ်တွင်မူ သူ၏ မွေးရက်မှာ ၁၉၆၆ ခုနှစ်၊ ဩဂုတ်လ (၈) ရက် ဖြစ်နေရာ ကွဲလွဲချက် ရှိနေသည်။ [၁၈] သူ၏ ဖခင် ဖြစ်သူ ဂျင်မီ (Jimmy)[၁၉] မှာ ဟင်းသီးဟင်းအရွက်ကုန်စုံဆိုင်မှ မန်နေဂျာ တစ်ယောက် ဖြစ်ပြီး၊ သူ့မခင်ဖြစ်သူ ဒေါရစ် (Doris) နှင့် အဘွားဖြစ်သူ အာရ်မာ (Erma) တို့သည် ကိုယ်ပိုင်ကျောင်း ဖွင့်လှစ်ထားသည်။ ကိုယ်ပိုင်ကျောင်း ဆိုသော်လည်း စာသင်ခန်းတစ်ခန်းတည်းသာရှိသော အိမ်ကျောင်းငယ်ကလေးတစ်ခုမျှသာ ဖြစ်သည်။ ဝေးလ်စ် သည် ယင်းကျောင်းလေးမှာပင် ငယ်စဉ်ဘဝ ပညာသင်ယူခဲ့သည်။ [၁၄] သူနှင့်အတူ အခြားသော ကလေး လေးယောက် သူအပါအဝင် စုစုပေါင်းမှ ကျောင်းသား ငါးယောက်သာ ရှိသော သူ့မိခင်နှင့် အဘွားတို့၏ အဆိုပါ အိမ်ကျောင်းကလေးတွင် သူတို့အားလုံးအား အတန်းတစ်တန်းတည်းသာ ထားပြီး သင်ကြားသည်။ [၁၃]

(၈)တန်း အောင်ပြီးသောအခါ ဝေးလ်စ် သည် ဟန့်စဗီးလ်မြို့ ရှိ တက္ကသိုလ်အကြိုကျောင်း ဖြစ်သော ရန်းဒေါ့လ်ဖ်ကျောင်း (Randolph School) သို့ တက်ရောက်ခဲ့သည်။ [၂၀] Wales has said that the school was expensive for his family, but that "Education was always a passion in my household … you know, the very traditional approach to knowledge and learning and establishing that as a base for a good life."[၁၃] သူသည် သူ၏ ဘဏ္ဍာရေးပညာဆိုင်ရာ ဘွဲ့ဒီဂရီကို ဩဘွန်းတက္ကသိုလ်မှ ရရှိခဲ့သည်။ ယင်းနောက် မဟာဘွဲ့ကို မပြီးဆုံးသေမီကပင် သူ့သည် ဒေါက်တာဘွဲ့သင်တန်းအတွက် ဝင်ခွင့် ရရှိခဲ့သည်။ [၁၃][၁၄] ထို့နောက် သူသည် အင်ဒီယားနားတက္ကသိုလ်တွင် ဘဏ္ဍာရေးဆိုင်ရာ ဘွဲ့ပညာကို ဆည်းပူးခဲ့သည်။ သူသည် ပညာသင်ယူနေစဉ်ကာလအတွင်း တက္ကသိုလ် နှစ်ခုစလုံးတွင် စာသင်ကြားပေးခဲ့သော်လည်း ပါရဂူဘွဲ့ အတွက် လိုအပ်သော ကျမ်းပြုခြင်းကို မပြုလုပ်ခဲ့ပေ။ [၁၃][၁၄]

အလုပ်အကိုင်[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ရှီကာဂို Chicago Options Associates and Bomis[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

From 1994 to 2000, Wales was the research director at Chicago Options Associates,[၇] a futures and options trading firm in Chicago.[၁၃] By "speculating on interest rate and foreign-currency fluctuations," he had soon earned enough to "support himself and his wife for the rest of their lives," according to Daniel Pink of Wired.[၂၁] During this time, one of the projects Wales undertook was the creation of the web portal Bomis[၂၁] which featured user-generated webrings and that, according to The Atlantic Monthly, "found itself positioned as the Playboy of the Internet."[၂၂] For a time the company sold erotic photographs,[၂၃] and Wales described the site as a "guy-oriented search engine" with a similar market to Maxim.[၁၃] Questions have arisen about the nature of its content.[၁၄][၂၄] Bomis did not become successful, but in March 2000 hosted and provided the initial funding for the Nupedia project.[၁၄][၂၁]

နျူပီးဒီးယားနှင့် ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

In March 2000, Wales started a peer-reviewed, open-content encyclopedia, Nupedia ("the free encyclopedia"), and hired Larry Sanger to be its editor-in-chief.[၁၃] Nupedia was characterized by an extensive peer-review process designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to that of professional encyclopedias.[၂၅] After Sanger publicly proposed on January 10, 2001, the idea of using a wiki to create an encyclopedia, Wales installed wiki software on a server and authorized Sanger to pursue the project under his supervision. Sanger dubbed the project "Wikipedia" and, with Wales, laid down the founding principles and content, establishing an Internet-based community of contributors during that year. Wikipedia was initially intended to be a wiki-based site for collaboration on early encyclopedic content for submission to Nupedia, but Wikipedia's rapid growth quickly overshadowed Nupedia's development.[၇] Sanger worked on and promoted both the Nupedia and Wikipedia projects until Bomis discontinued funding for his position in February 2002;[၂၆] Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as "chief organizer" of Wikipedia on March 1.[၂၇][၂၈] Wales has said that he initially was so worried with the concept that he would wake up in the middle of the night, wanting to check the site for vandalism.[၂၉] In the early years, Wales supplied the financial backing for the project.[၈] In a 2004 interview with Slashdot, Wales explained his motivations about Wikipedia, "Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing."[၃၀]

ဝီကီမီဒီယာရန်ပုံငွေအဖွဲ့[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

In mid-2003, Wales set up the Wikimedia Foundation (WMF), a non-profit organization founded in St. Petersburg, Florida, and now based in San Francisco, California.[၃၁][၃၂] Originally chairman of the foundation, Wales has held the honorary title of Chairman Emeritus since 2006. He is now one of eight directors who make up its Board of Trustees.[၃၃] The work he carries out for the foundation has always been unpaid, including his appearances to promote the organization at computer and educational conferences.[၂၃] In a 2007 interview, Wales said that he thought that "donating" Wikipedia to the foundation was both the "dumbest and the smartest" thing he'd done. On the one hand, he noted, Wikipedia was worth Template:USD (by his estimation); on the other, donating it made possible the success he achieved.[၃၄]

In March 2008, Wales was accused by former Wikimedia Foundation employee Danny Wool of subsidizing personal expenditures with foundation funds. Wool also stated that Wales had his Wikimedia credit card taken away in part because of his spending habits, though Wales denied this claim.[၃၅] Foundation Chair Florence Devouard and former foundation interim Executive Director Brad Patrick denied any wrongdoing by Wales or the foundation, saying that Wales accounted for every expense and that, for items for which he lacked receipts, he paid out of his own pocket.[၃၆] Later in March 2008, it was alleged by Jeffrey Vernon Merkey that Wales had edited Merkey's Wikipedia entry to make it more favorable in return for donations to the Wikimedia Foundation, an allegation Wales dismissed as "nonsense."[၃၇][၃၈]

ဝီကီယာ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]


In 2004, Wales and then-fellow member of the WMF Board of Trustees Angela Beesley founded the for-profit company Wikia, Inc.[၇] Wikia is a wiki farm—a collection of individual wikis on different subjects, all hosted on the same website.[၃၉] Its most popular wikis include Memory Alpha (devoted to Star Trek), WoWWiki (World of Warcraft) and Wookieepedia (Star Wars).[၄၀] Another service offered by Wikia is an open source web search engine named Wikia Search, intended to challenge Google and introduce transparency and public dialogue about how it's created into the search engine's operations.[၁၅] Wales stepped down as Wikia CEO to be replaced by angel investor Gil Penchina, a former vice president and general manager at eBay, on June 5, 2006.[၄၁]

Biographical and Wikipedia issues[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Philosopher Larry Sanger, whom Wales hired as editor-in-chief of Nupedia

Roles of Wikipedia creators[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ပိုပြီးသိချင်ရင်တော့ ဒီမှာကြည့်ပါ။ Wales has asserted that he is the sole founder of Wikipedia[၁၂] and has publicly disputed Larry Sanger's designation as a co-founder of Wikipedia, describing the claim as "preposterous" to The Boston Globe in 2006[၄၂] and calling "the whole debate silly" in an April 2009 interview.[၄၃] Sanger was identified as co-founder at least as early as September 2001 by The New York Times[၄၄] and was referred to as a founder alongside Wales in Wikipedia's first press release in January 2002.[၄၅] In August of that year, Wales identified himself as "co-founder" of Wikipedia.[၄၆] In addition to developing Wikipedia in its early phase and guiding the project,[၈][၁၁] Sanger was responsible for the idea of applying the wiki concept to the building of a free encyclopedia, and for the name "Wikipedia".[၁၁][၄၇] In a 2005 memoir for Slashdot, Sanger nevertheless ascribed the broader idea to Wales: "To be clear, the idea of an open source, collaborative encyclopedia, open to contribution by ordinary people, was entirely Jimmy's, not mine, and the funding was entirely by Bomis. … The actual development of this encyclopedia was the task he gave me to work on."[၄၈] In response to Wales' view,[၄၉] Sanger posted on his personal webpage many links which appear to confirm his role in founding Wikipedia, all of which described Wales and Sanger as the co-founders.[၁၁][၅၀] In a discussion in March 2007 with Brian Bergstein of the Associated Press, Wales said: "When you write this up please do not uncritically repeat Sanger's absurd claim to be the co-founder of Wikipedia." He added: "I am not bent out of shape about it. The facts are on my side, which is why I bother so little about it."[၁၁] Wales' role in the Wikipedia community has been described as benevolent dictator, constitutional monarch and spiritual leader.[၅၁]

Wikipedia biography[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Jimmy Wales 2014 on CeBIT Global Conferences, Wikipedia Zero

In late 2005, Wales edited his own biographical entry on the English Wikipedia. Writer Rogers Cadenhead drew attention to logs showing that in his edits to the page, Wales had removed references to Sanger as the co-founder of Wikipedia.[၅၂] Sanger commented that "having seen edits like this, it does seem that Jimmy is attempting to rewrite history. But this is a futile process because in our brave new world of transparent activity and maximum communication, the truth will out."[၂၄][၅၃] Wales was also observed to have modified references to Bomis in a way that was characterized as downplaying the sexual nature of some of his former company's products.[၂၄] In an article in the July 31, 2006, issue of The New Yorker magazine, Stacy Schiff expanded on this topic, stating that Wales was "caught airbrushing his Wikipedia entry—eighteen times in the past year" and that he was "sensitive about references to the porn traffic on his Web portal".[၄၇] In both cases, Wales argued that his modifications were solely intended to improve the accuracy of the content.[၂၄] He apologized for editing his own biography, a practice generally frowned upon at Wikipedia. Wales said in the Wired interview, "People should not do it, including me. I wish I had not done it."[၂၄]

Personal life[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Jimmy Wales with his second wife Christine

His first wife, Pam, was quoted in a September 2008 W magazine article as saying that Wales, because he believed altruism was evil, discouraged her from pursuing a nursing degree when they were married: "His whole 'Mr. Save the World' is so contrary to what he said every day for seven years."[၅၄] Late in March 1997, Wales married his second wife, Christine, in Monroe County, Florida.[၅၅] They have a daughter named Kira and are separated.[၃၆] As of 2007, Wales resided in the St. Petersburg, Florida, area.[၅၆]

Wales had a brief relationship with Canadian conservative columnist Rachel Marsden in 2008 that began after Marsden contacted Wales about her Wikipedia biography.[၅၇] After accusations that Wales' relationship constituted a conflict of interest, Wales announced in March 2008 on his Wikipedia user page (and later on his personal blog) that there had been a relationship but that it was over and claimed that it had not influenced any matters on Wikipedia.[၅၈][၅၉] Marsden claimed to have learned about the breakup by reading about it on Wikipedia.[၅၈][၆၀]

Philosophy[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

Wales is a self-avowed "Objectivist to the core", and named his daughter Kira after the heroine in Ayn Rand's debut novel We the Living,[၁၅] although he has said "I think I do a better job—than a lot of people who self-identify as Objectivists—of not pushing my point of view on other people."[၆၁] He ran an electronic mailing list on "Moderated Discussion of Objectivist Philosophy".[၆၂] When asked about Rand by Brian Lamb in his appearance on C-SPAN's Q&A in September 2005, Wales cited "the virtue of independence" as important to him personally. When asked if he could trace "the Ayn Rand connection" to having a political philosophy at the time of the interview, Wales reluctantly labeled himself a libertarian, qualifying his remark by referring to the United States Libertarian Party as "lunatics" and citing "freedom, liberty, basically individual rights, that idea of dealing with other people in a matter that is not initiating force against them" as his guiding principles.[၁၃] An interview with Wales served as the cover feature of the June 2007 issue of the libertarian magazine Reason, in which Wales cited Austrian School economist Friedrich von Hayek's work on price theory and decentralised information The Use of Knowledge in Society as "central" to his thinking about "how to manage the Wikipedia project".[၁၄]

ဂုဏ်ပုဒ်နှင့် ရာထူးများ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

၂၀၀၈ အောက်တိုဘာ ၃ ရက်နေ့တွင် ဂျင်မီဝေးလ်စ် Quadriga award ဆုအား လက်ခံယူစဉ်။

Published work[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

ကျမ်းကိုး[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ Jimmy Wales. Britannica Book of the Year (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-25။. In support of this date, the Britannica article cites:
    • Jimmy Wales. Monroe, Florida's County Clerk website (Marriage License Database). Retrieved on 2008-05-21
    • (February 28, 2007) Current Biography Yearbook. H. W. Wilson. ISBN 978-0824210748. 
    • (October 12, 2005) Who's Who In America: Diamond Edition, 60, Marquis Who's Who. ISBN 978-0837969909. 
  2. Wikipedia: 50 languages, 1/2 million articles. Wikimedia Foundation Press Release. Wikimedia Foundation (2004-04-25). Retrieved on 2009-04-10"The Wikipedia project was founded in January 2001 by Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales and philosopher Larry Sanger," quoted from the April 25th, 2004 first-ever press release issued by the Wikimedia Foundation.
  3. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, reaches its 100,000th article. Wikipedia Press Release. Wikipedia (2003-01-21). Retrieved on 2009-04-10
  4. ၄.၀ ၄.၁ "Brain scan: The free-knowledge fundamentalist", Technology Quarterly, The Economist, 2008-06-05. Retrieved on 2008-06-09. 
  5. Keen, Andrew. "Andrew Keen on New Media", The Independent, 2008-06-02. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. 
  6. Board of Trustees/Restructure Announcement. Wikimedia Foundation website (April 26, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27
  7. ၇.၀ ၇.၁ ၇.၂ ၇.၃ McNichol, Tom. "Building a Wiki World", Business 2.0, CNN, May 1, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  8. ၈.၀ ၈.၁ ၈.၂ Singer, Michael. "Free Encyclopedia Project Celebrates Year One", Jupitermedia, January 16, 2002. Retrieved on 2008-02-27. Archived from the original on 2003-03-16. 
  9. Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved on February 29, 2008. “Wales, though, was a businessman. He wanted to build a free encyclopedia, and Wikipedia offered a very rapid and economically efficient means to that end. The articles flooded in, many were good, and they cost him almost nothing... Wales’s benign rule has allowed Wikipedia to do what it does best: grow. The numbers are staggering. 
  10. Halstead, Larry. "Wikipedia teams with Yahoo!", Tampa Bay Business Journal, April 7, 2005. Retrieved on 2009-04-12. 
  11. ၁၁.၀ ၁၁.၁ ၁၁.၂ ၁၁.၃ ၁၁.၄ Bergstein, Brian. "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia", MSNBC, March 25, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-26. "The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy Ph.D. who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp. The claim does not seem particularly controversial—Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder. Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, is not happy about it." 
  12. ၁၂.၀ ၁၂.၁ Olson, Parmy. "A New Kid On The Wiki Block", Forbes, October 18, 2006. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. Archived from the original on 2012-12-06. 
  13. ၁၃.၀၀ ၁၃.၀၁ ၁၃.၀၂ ၁၃.၀၃ ၁၃.၀၄ ၁၃.၀၅ ၁၃.၀၆ ၁၃.၀၇ ၁၃.၀၈ ၁၃.၀၉ ၁၃.၁၀ Lamb, Brian. "Q&A: Jimmy Wales, Wikipedia founder", C-SPAN, September 25, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-10-31. 
  14. ၁၄.၀ ၁၄.၁ ၁၄.၂ ၁၄.၃ ၁၄.၄ ၁၄.၅ ၁၄.၆ ၁၄.၇ Mangu-Ward, Katherine. "Wikipedia and beyond: Jimmy Wales' sprawling vision", Reason Foundation, June 2007, p. 21. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  15. ၁၅.၀ ၁၅.၁ ၁၅.၂ Deutschman, Alan. "Why Is This Man Smiling?", Fast Company, March 2007. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. ""Wales revealed that Wikia, his for-profit Silicon Valley startup, was working on Search Wikia, which he touted as "the search engine that changes everything ... Just as Wikipedia revolutionized how we think about knowledge and the encyclopedia, we have a chance now to revolutionize how we think about search."" 
  16. ၁၆.၀ ၁၆.၁ Anderson, Chris. "Jimmy Wales: The (Proud) Amateur Who Created Wikipedia", Time, April 30, 2006. Retrieved on February 17, 2008. 
  17. Frith, Holden. "Wikipedia founder launches rival online encyclopaedia", The Times, March 26, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-03-07. 
  18. Rogoway, Mike (July 27, 2007). Wikipedia & its founder disagree on his birth date. Silicon Forest. The Oregonian. Retrieved on October 31, 2008.
  19. Kazek, Kelly (August 11, 2006). Geek to chic: Wikipedia founder a celebrity. The News Courier. “Doris Wales’ husband, Jimmy, wasn’t sure what she was thinking when she bought a World Book Encyclopedia set from a traveling salesman in 1968.[dead link]
  20. Brown, David. "Jimmy Wales '83", Alumni Profiles, Randolph School, 2007-12-11. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  21. ၂၁.၀ ၂၁.၁ ၂၁.၂ Pink, Daniel H.. "The Book Stops Here", Wired, March 13, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  22. Poe, Marshall (September 1, 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  23. ၂၃.၀ ၂၃.၁ Brennen, Jensen. "Access for All", USA: Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc., 2006-06-29. 
  24. ၂၄.၀ ၂၄.၁ ၂၄.၂ ၂၄.၃ ၂၄.၄ Hansen, Evan. "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio", Wired. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  25. Gouthro, Liane. "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia", PCWorld, CNN, March 14, 2000. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  26. Sanger, Larry (January 18, 2002). What Wikipedia is and why it matters. meta.wikimedia.org. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-10-31
  27. Sanger Larry (March 5, 2007). "My resignation--Larry Sanger". meta.wikimedia.org. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  28. Terdiman, Daniel (January 6, 2006). "Wikipedia's co-founder eyes a Digital Universe". CNET News. Retrieved on October 31, 2008.
  29. In Search of an Online Utopia. msnbc.msn (February 1, 2007). Archived from the original on 2007-04-18။ Retrieved on 2008-10-31
  30. Miller, Rob "Roblimo". "Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales Responds", Slashdot, July 28, 2004. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  31. Twist, Jo (November 5, 2005). "Open media to connect communities", BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  32. Wikimedia foundation bylaws. Wikimedia. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  33. Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees. Wikimedia. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  34. Marks, Paul (February 3, 2007). "Interview with Jimmy Wales: Knowledge to the people" (Video). New Scientist 193 (2589). Reed Business Information Ltd.. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  35. Moses, Asher (March 5, 2008). "Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales accused of expenses rort", Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  36. ၃၆.၀ ၃၆.၁ Kim, Ryan. "Allegations swirl around Wikipedia's Wales", San Francisco Chronicle, March 5, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  37. Template:Citeweb
  38. Template:Citeweb
  39. Wikia homepage. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  40. wikia.com - Traffic Details from Alexa
  41. Wikia taps eBay exec as CEO. San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved on 2006-06-05
  42. Mehegan, David. "Bias, sabotage haunt Wikipedia's free world", The Boston Globe, The New York Times Company, February 12, 2006, p. 4. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  43. Paoletto, William. "Interview with Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales", Big Oak Blog, April 2, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-04-02. 
  44. Meyers, Peter. "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You", The New York Times, The New York Times Company, September 20, 2001. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. "I can start an article that will consist of one paragraph, and then a real expert will come along and add three paragraphs and clean up my one paragraph."  —Larry Sanger.
  45. "Free Encyclopedia Project, Wikipedia, Creates 20,000 Articles in a Year (Wikipedia 2002 Press release)", Wikipedia, January 15, 2002. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. 
  46. Wales, Jimmy. "3apes open content web directory", Yahoo! Tech Groups forum post, WebCite, August 06, 2002. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. Archived from the original on 2009-04-01. "I'm Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Nupedia and Wikipedia, the open content encyclopedias." 
  47. ၄၇.၀ ၄၇.၁ Schiff, Stacy. "Know It All", The New Yorker, 2006-07-31. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
    b "Even Wales has been caught airbrushing his Wikipedia entry—eighteen times in the past year. He is particularly sensitive about references to the porn traffic on his Web portal. 'Adult content' or 'glamour photography' are the terms that he prefers, though, as one user pointed out on the site, they are perhaps not the most precise way to describe lesbian strip-poker threesomes. (In January, Wales agreed to a compromise: 'erotic photography')."
  48. Sanger, Larry. "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir", Slashdot, April 18, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-10-31. 
  49. Mitchell, Dan. "Insider Editing at Wikipedia", The New York Times, December 24, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  50. Cohen, Noam. "Open-Source Troubles in Wiki World", The New York Times, 2008-03-17, p. 1C. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. 
  51. Cadenhead, Rogers (December 19, 2005). Wikipedia Founder Looks Out for Number 1. cadenhead.org. Retrieved on 2008-10-31
  52. Blakely, Rhys (December 20, 2007). Wikipedia founder edits himself. Times Online. Retrieved on 2008-10-31
  53. Lipsky-Karasz, Alisa (September 2008). Mr. Know-It-All. W magazine. Retrieved on 2008-10-31
  54. Florida Marriage Collection, 1822-1875 and 1927-2001 (Requires paid membership to view). Ancestry.com. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  55. Lewine, Edward (November 18, 2007). The Encyclopedist’s Lair. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-07
    C "Greatest misconception about Wikipedia: We aren’t democratic. Our readers edit the entries, but we’re actually quite snobby. The core community appreciates when someone is knowledgeable, and thinks some people are idiots and shouldn’t be writing."
  56. The Canadian Press (March 2, 2008). Canadian pundit, Wikipedia founder in messy breakup. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-10-31
  57. ၅၈.၀ ၅၈.၁ Moses, Asher. "Ex takes her revenge on Mr Wikipedia", The Sydney Morning Herald, March 4, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  58. Bergstein, Brian. "Wikipedia's Wales defends breakup, expenses", USA Today, March 5, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  59. Sirius, R.U. (July 29, 2007). Jimmy Wales Will Destroy Google. 10 Zen Monkeys. Retrieved on 2008-10-31
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  61. Template:Cite press release
  62. Garlick, Mia. "Creative Commons Adds Two New Board Members", Creative Commons, March 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  63. "Knox College Honorary Degrees", knox.edu. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  64. "EFF Honors Craigslist, Gigi Sohn, and Jimmy Wales with Pioneer Awards", Kansas City infoZine News, April 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  65. "People: Advisory board", cci.mit.edu. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  66. Ewalt, David M.. "The Web Celeb 25", January 23, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  67. "Participants > Speakers > Jimmy Wales", iCommonsSummit.org. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  68. "Corum announces Jimmy Wales as The Global Brand Icon of the Year Award", MattBaily.ca, September 14, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. 
  69. "Die Quadriga Award for 'A Mission of Enlightenment' – 2008", loomarea.com. Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  70. "The Economist Innovation Awards and Summit", economist.com, October 30, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-08. 

ပြင်ပလင့်ခ်များ[ပြင်​ဆင်​ရန်​]

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